(1) the frost depth from 11:37-12:11 by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The cover type photos were archived.
(2) the gravimetric soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm, 3-5cm, 5-10cm and 10-20cm) by the microwave drying method.
(3) the surface radiative temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer and the physical temperature by the thermocouple thermometer.
(4) the soil roughness, which can be acquired from related dataset of other period.
Data Citation Zhang Lixin, Chang Sheng, Fang Qian, Liang Xingtao, Liu Zhigang, Liu Chenzhou, Pan Jinmei, Peng Danqing, Qu Ying, Ren Huazhong, Yin Xiaojun, Zhang Yongpan, Zhang Zhiyu, Zhao Shaojie, Zhao Tianjie, Zheng Yue, Zhou Ji, Zhang Zhiyu. WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with MODIS in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 14, 2008. Beijing Normal University; Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2008. doi:10.3972/water973.0027.db
The dataset is generated from the "Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) “, the user must have a clear statement in the article of the original data source and adopt the reference style providing by the metadata in the References section.