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A spatiotemporal dataset for knowledge discovery on population, environment and development in China


Descriptions of the spatial and temporal variations in population and their interactions with the environment and development are highly required to better respond to the population problems associated with social, political and environmental issues. Here, we present a dataset for knowledge discovery on correlations between population, environment and development in China. The dataset comprises items of population, basic geography, climate, topography, landform, land use and land cover, vegetation, natural resources, infrastructure, economy, nighttime light. The data is expressed as raster or vector format covering a remarkably long period from 1980 to 2010. The dataset is collected from multiple international and national data-sharing canters, official statistics, etc. All of the data items are quality controlled and unified into an identical dataset with the same spatial scope, resolution and period using GIS techniques. The database is expected to be useful in demographic and environmental studies such as extracting the knowledge of the relationship between population and natural-social-economic conditions, simulating how population influences the environment and society, etc.

(1) Population: This dataset contains 5 years (1995, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2010) population distributions cover the whole land region in China. The data is expressed as raster format with 1 km resolution and a projection of Albers. Attribute information mainly includes population density (unit: number of people per square kilometer). The source data are originally provided by Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (RESDC) (http://www.resdc.cn) and Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science (http://www.geodata.cn).

(2) Basic Geography: This dataset contains vector data and attribute table about boundary, county, river, railway and road of China. The source data are originally obtained from National Geometrics Center of China (http://ngcc.sbsm.gov.cn) and Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science (http://www.geodata.cn). The spatial reference of the original data has been transformed to projection of Albers.

1) Boundary: China’s land borders and provincial borders with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. The data is expressed as shapefile polygon. Attribute information includes provinces’ CODE, NAME, AREA (m2) and PERIMETER (m). The boundaries are produced in 1988 and different from the newest borders.

2) County: China’s county borders with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. The data is expressed as shapefile polygon. Attribute information includes county’ CODE, CNAME, ENAME, AREA (m2) and PERIMETER (m). The boundaries are produced in 1993 and different from the newest borders.

3) Countyp: China’s county capital with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. The data is expressed as shapefile point. Attribute information includes county’ CODE, CNAME, ENAME, AREA (m2) and PERIMETER (m). The boundaries are produced in 1993 and different from the newest borders.

4) Railway: China’s railway distribution with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. The data is expressed as shapefile line. Attribute information mainly includes RAILWAY_ID, CLASS, FNODE, TNODE, LENGTH (m). The railways are produced in 1988 and different from the newest railways.

5) Road: China’s road distribution with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. The data is expressed as shapefile line. Attribute information mainly includes Road_ID, FNODE, TNODE, LENGTH (m). The roads are produced in 1988 and different from the newest roads.

(3) Climate: This dataset contains raster data of main climate element cover the whole land region in China with 1 km resolution and a projection of Albers. Projection transformation is applied to assure the dataset are with the same spatial reference with other dataset. In addition, time serial data integration is conducted to calculate the ten-year average climate conditions.

1) Precipitation: This dataset contains 21 years (1980-2000) and two ten-year average (1980s, 1990s) of precipitation cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes precipitation (mm). The source data are originally provided by Thematic Database for Human-earth System (http://www.data.ac.cn).

2) Temperature: This dataset contains 21 years (1980-2000) and two ten-year average (1980s, 1990s) of temperature cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes average temperature (mm), yearly highest temperature (mm), yearly lowest temperature (mm). The source data are originally provided by Thematic Database for Human-earth System (http://www.data.ac.cn).

3) Relative Humidity: This dataset contains an averaged relative humidity from 1956 to 2000 cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes relative humidity (%). The source data are originally provided by Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (http://www.cerndata.ac.cn/).

4) Warm Index: This dataset contains an averaged warm index from 1956 to 2000 cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes warm index (-). The source data are originally provided by Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (http://www.cerndata.ac.cn/).

(4) Topography: This dataset contains raster data of DEM, slope and aspect cover the whole land region in China with 1 km resolution and a projection of Albers.

1) DEM: This dataset contains digital elevation data cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes elevation (m). The source data are originally provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China (http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn).

2) Slope: This dataset contains slope cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes slope gradient (%). This dataset is calculated by maximum slope method based on DEM data stated above. The surface analysis tool of ArcGIS 10.1 is used to derive slope gradient.

3) Aspect: This dataset contains aspect cover the whole land region in China. Attribute information mainly includes aspect (°). This dataset is calculated by maximum slope method based on DEM data stated above. The surface analysis tool of ArcGIS 10.1 is used to derive aspect.

(5) Landform: This dataset contains China’s landform classification with a scale of 1:400 and a projection of Albers. Attribute information includes GEOMOR_ID, AREA (m2) and PERIMETER (m). The data is produced in 1994. The source data are originally provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China (http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn).

(6) Land use and Land Cover: This dataset contains 3 time serial China’s land use and land cover (1980s, 1995, 2000) area a LUCC classification extracted from GLC 2000.

The data are with 1 km resolution and a projection of Albers.

1) Land use and land cover area: this data contains China’s land use and land cover area of 1980s, 1995, 2000. Attribute information includes the area ratio of land use and land cover type (%/km2). The LUCC code and its meaning are listed in Table 1. The source data are originally obtained from Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science (http://www.geodata.cn).

Land use and land cover of GLC 2000 is extracted from the global land use and land cover. Attribute information of this data is land use and land cover classification type. The source data is obtained from the International Scientific & Technical Data Mirror Site, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data was initially developed by the GLOBAL LAND COVER 2000 Project, which is a collaboration of partners around the world with the general objective of providing a harmonized land cover database across the world for the year 2000.

(7) Vegetation: This dataset contains vegetation classification and vegetation dynamic cover the whole land region in China with a projection of Albers.

1) Vegetation classification: China’s vegetation classification with a scale of 1:400. The data is expressed as vector and in the format of shapefile polygon. Attribute information includes vegetation_ID, AREA (m2) and PERIMETER (m). The boundaries are produced in 1979. They can only be used for scientific researches, but not for demarcation.

2) Vegetation dynamics: This dataset contains 28 years (1982-2010) vegetation index with a projection of Albers. This data is expressed as raster format. The main attribute information includes Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The NDVI data from 1982 to 2006 with a resolution of 8 km are integrated from half-monthly GIMMS (Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) NDVI product. The source GIMMS NDVI data is obtained from Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China (http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn). The NDVI data from 2007-2010 are integrated from monthly MODIS NDVI product, which are obtained from International Scientific & Technical Data Mirror Site, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (http://www.gscloud.cn). In the NDVI data, the normal value is from 0 to 1 and water pixels have a value of -10.

(8) Natural Resources: This dataset includes water resources, land resources and forest resources. The data is expressed as raster format with 1km resolution and projection of albers. Attribute information mainly includes amount of water resources distribution, quality of the cultivated land, and NPP distribution. The amount of water resources is acquired from the Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science. The quality of the cultivated land in China is obtained from the Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science. The original NPP data are acquired from the LAADS Web of the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA (http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/index.html). The original data are integrated both on spatial and time scale, and then transformed to the same projection with other data.

(9) Infrastructure: This dataset contains two data items including the distance to the railway and the distance to the river. The two data items are both expressed as raster format with 1km resolution and a projection of Albers. The two item cannot bedirectly achieved from existing observed data. To calculate the indicator of distance to railway and distance to river, we firstly convert a raster dataset with a spatial resolution of 1 km into a point feature. Then we overlay the feature with the feature of river or railway, and calculate the nearest distance for each point. The ‘Near’ analysis in the proximity analysis tools provided by ArcGIS 10.1 is used to calculate the two indicators.

(10) Economy: This dataset contains 5 years (1995, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2010) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) distributions cover the whole land region in China. The data is expressed as raster format with 1 km resolution and a projection of Albers. Attribute information mainly includes gross annual GDP value (unit: ten million yuan per square kilometer). The source data are originally provided by Data Sharing Infrastructure of Earth System Science (http://www.geodata.cn).

(11) Nighttime Light: This dataset contains 18 years China’s night time light with 10 km resolution and a projection of Albers. The attribute information is digital number with a range of 0 to 63. The source data is obtained from NOAA national geophysical data center Earth Observation Group (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/eog/). We extracted the nighttime light of China from the original global scale data.


CitationHelp

Wang LZ., Chen LJ, Zhu YQ. A spatiotemporal dataset for knowledge discovery on population, environment and development in China. Cold and Arid Regions Science Data Center at Lanzhou, 2014. Doi:10.3972/card.001.2015.db (Download: RIS | Bibtex)


Limitations

The dataset can only be used for scientific researches, but not for demarcation.

Fund

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation under Grant 41301028, as well as by the Project of State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System (LREIS).


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  • Temporal Range: 1956-01-01 to 2010-12-31
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