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HiWATER: Dataset of Hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Sidaoqiao superstation) Chinese Version


This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Sidaoqiao superstation eddy covariance system (EC) in the lower reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 6 July to 31 December, 2013. The site (101.137° E, 42.001° N) was located in the Tamarix surface, Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia. The elevation is 873 m. The EC was installed at a height of 8 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500A) was 0.15 m.

The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.12 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red.

The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format.

For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.


CitationsHelp

  1. Liu SM, Li X, Xu ZW, Che T, Xiao Q, Ma MG, Liu QH, Jin R, Guo JW, Wang LX, Wang WZ, Qi Y, Li HY, Xu TR, Ran YH, Hu XL, Shi SJ, Zhu ZL, Tan JL, Zhang Y, Ren ZG. The Heihe Integrated Observatory Network: A basin-scale land surface processes observatory in China. Vadose Zone Journal, 2018, 17:180072. doi:10.2136/vzj2018.04.0072DetailDownload
  2. Liu SM, Xu ZW, Wang WZ, Bai J, Jia Z, Zhu M, Wang JM. A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2011, 15(4): 1291-1306. doi:10.5194/hess-15-1291-2011.DetailDownload

Related Publications (Recommended by Author)

  1. Liu SM, Xu ZW, Song LS, Zhao QY, Ge Y, Xu TR, Ma YF, Zhu ZL, Jia ZZ, Zhang F. Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2016, 230-231, 97-113. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.04.008.Detail Download
  2. Xu ZW, Ma YF, Liu SM, Shi SJ, Wang JM. Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 2017, 56: 127-140, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0096.1.Detail Download
  3. Song LS, Liu SM, Kustas W P, Zhou J, Xu ZW, Xia T, Li MS. Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.01.005.Detail Download
  4. Song LS , Kustas WP, Liu SM, Colaizzi PD, Nieto H, Xu ZW, Ma YF, Li MS, Xu TR, Agam N, Tolk JA, Evett SR. Applications of a thermal-based two-source energy balance model using Priestley-Taylor approach for surface temperature partitioning under advective conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.06.034.Detail Download
  5. Zhang Q, Sun R, Jiang GQ, Xu ZW, Liu SM. Carbon and energy flux from a Phragmites australis wetland in Zhangye oasis-desert area, China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.02.019.Detail Download
  6. Xu TR, Bateni S.M., Liang SL. Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12 (1), 68-72.doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2326180Detail Download
  7. Wang JM, Zhuang JX, Wang WZ, Liu SM, Xu ZW. Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12 (2), 259-263. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2334703Detail Download
  8. Song LS, Liu SM, Zhang X, Zhou J, Li MS. Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12 (2), 334-338. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2339360Detail Download
  9. Qiao C, Sun R, Xu ZW, Zhang L, Liu LY, Hao LY, Jiang GQ. A study of shelterbelt transpiration and cropland evapotranspiration in an irrigated area in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing   Letters, 2015, 12(2), 369-373. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2342219Detail Download
  10. Zhu ZL, Tan L, Gao SG, Jiao QS. Oberservation on soil moisture of irrigated cropland by cosmic-ray probe. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12(3), 472-476.Detail Download
  11. Ge Y, Liang YZ, Wang JH, Zhao QY, Liu SM. Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging.  IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12(3), 656-660.doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2355871Detail Download
  12. Ma YF, Liu SM, Zhang F, Zhou J, Jia ZZ. Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12(3), 671-675. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2356652Detail Download
  13. Bai, J., Jia, L., Liu, S., Xu, Z., Hu, G., Zhu, M., Song, L.. Characterizing the Footprint of Eddy Covariance System and Large Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Validate Satellite-Based Surface Fluxes. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 2015, 12(5), 943-947. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2368580Detail Download
  14. Xu TR, Liu SM, Xu ZW, Liang SL, Xu L. A dual-pass data assimilation scheme for estimating surface fluxes with FY3A-VIRR land surface temperature. Sci. China Earth Sci., 2015, 58(2), 211-230, doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-4964-7.Detail Download
  15. Xu T, Liu S, Xu L, Chen Y, Jia Z, Xu Z, Nielson J. Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing. 2015, 7(3):3400-3425. doi:10.3390/rs70303400Detail Download
  16. Zhang L, Sun R, Xu ZW, Qiao C, Jiang GQ. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120660Detail Download
  17. Song LS, Liu SM, William Kustas P, Zhou J, Ma YF. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 2015, 7(5):5828-5848. doi:10.3390/rs70505828Detail Download
  18. Hu MG, Wang JH, Ge Y, Liu MX, Liu SM, Xu ZW, Xu TR. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1032-1044.Detail Download
  19. Zhou J, Li MS, Liu SM, Jia ZZ, Ma YF. Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 2015, 7, 7126-7156.Detail Download
  20. Gao SG, Zhu ZL, Liu SM, Jin R, Yang GC, Tan L. Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 2014, 32, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.03.003Detail Download
  21. Li Y, Sun R, Liu SM. Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. SCIENCE CHINA, 2014,doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4909-1Detail Download
  22. Xu ZW, Liu SM, Li X, Shi SJ, Wang JM, Zhu ZL, Xu TR, Wang WZ, Ma MG. Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013,118, 13140-13157, doi:10.1002/2013JD020260.Detail Download
  23. Liu SM, Xu ZW, Zhu ZL, Jia ZZ, Zhu MJ. Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 2013, 487, 24-38.Detail Download

General introduction of HiWATER

  1. Li X, Cheng GD, Liu SM, Xiao Q, Ma MG, Jin R, Che T, Liu QH, Wang WZ, Qi Y, Wen JG, Li HY, Zhu GF, Guo JW, Ran YH, Wang SG, Zhu ZL, Zhou J, Hu XL, Xu ZW. Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER): Scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2013, 94(8): 1145-1160, 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1.Detail | Download

Limitations

The dataset is generated from the "Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER)". User must have a clear statement in the article of the original data source and cite the dataset and papers in the Citation section.

Fund

  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91125002)

Online Resources



InformationFile list

  • File Format: *.xlsx
  • Size: 1.14 MB
  • Downloaded: 73
  • Viewed: 6472
  • Temporal Range: 2013-07-06 to 2013-12-31

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  • Last update: 2016-07-04
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  • Versions: 9