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HiWATER: Dataset of Fractional Snow Cover area in the Heihe River Basin Chinese Version

The data set provided the cloudless Fractional Snow Cover area (FSC) time-series product basing on the MODIS data and covered the Heihe River Basin from January 2010 to December 2013. They also provide the high spatial (500 m) and temporal (1 day) resolution. Firstly, the end-member were automatically extracted by the fast autonomous spectral end-member determination (N-FINDR) maximizing volume iteration algorithm. Combining N-FINDR with the orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) approach, we propose an improved end-member extraction algorithm using a maximizing, volume-based iterative method. All the 6 end-members were extracted including snow, soil, water, bare land, vegetation, and cloud, respectively. Then, the 10-day spectral library time series based on prior knowledge of Heihe basin are built for 2009. The primary data were produced using the fully constrained least squares (FCLS) linear spectral mixture analysis method by the spectral library. Finally,the cubic spline interpolation algorithm were used to the eliminate the cloud pixels completely and obtain the data set. The data are validated by the fractional snow cover derived from Landsat imagery and the results indicate that the improved algorithm can obtain the end-member information accurately, and the retrieved fractional snow cover has better accuracy than the MODIS fractional snow-cover product (MOD10A1). So the data set can provide more accurate input for the hydrology and climate model.


  1. Zhang Y, Huang XD, Hao XH, Wang J, Wang W, Liang TG. Fractional snow-cover mapping using an improved endmember extraction algorithm. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2014, 8(1): 084691. doi: 10.1117/1.JRS.8.084691.DetailDownload
  2. Li X, Liu SM, Xiao Q, Ma MG, Jin R, Che T, Wang WZ, Hu XL, Xu ZW, Wen JG, Wang LX. A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system. Scientific Data, 2017, 4: 170083. doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.83.DetailDownload

Related Publications (Recommended by Author)

  1. Tang ZG , Wang J, Li HY, Yan LL. Spatiotemporal changes of snow cover over the Tibetan plateau based on cloud-removed moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer fractional snow cover product from 2001 to 2011. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2013, 7: 073582-1. doi:10.1117/1.JRS.7.073582.Detail

General introduction of HiWATER

  1. Li X, Cheng GD, Liu SM, Xiao Q, Ma MG, Jin R, Che T, Liu QH, Wang WZ, Qi Y, Wen JG, Li HY, Zhu GF, Guo JW, Ran YH, Wang SG, Zhu ZL, Zhou J, Hu XL, Xu ZW. Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER): Scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2013, 94(8): 1145-1160, 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1.Detail | Download


The dataset is generated from the "Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER)". User must have a clear statement in the article of the original data source and cite the dataset and papers in the Citation section.


  • The CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) Action Plan for West Development Project (No. KZCX2-XB3-15)

Online Resources

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  • File Format: *.hdr
  • Size: 1003.52 MB
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  • Temporal Range: 2010-01-01 to 2012-12-31

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  • Last update: 2016-01-18
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