The raw COSMOS data include the following: battery (Batt, V), temperature (T, ℃), relative humidity (RH, %), air pressure (P, hPa), fast neutron counts (N1C, counts per hour), thermal neutron counts (N2C, counts per hour), sample time of fast neutrons (N1ET, s), and sample time of thermal neutrons (N2ET, s). The distributed data include the following variables: Date, Time, P, N1C, N1C_cor (corrected fast neutron counts) and VWC (volume soil moisture, %), which were processed as follows:
1) Quality control
Data were removed and replaced by -6999 when (a) the battery voltage was less than 11.8 V, (b) the relative humidity was greater than 80% inside the probe box, (c) the counting data were not of one-hour duration and (d) then neutron count differed from the previous value by more than 20%.
2) Air pressure correction
An air pressure correction was applied to the quality-controlled raw data according to the equation contained in the equipment manual. The procedure was previously described by Jiao et al. (2013) and Zreda et al. (2012).
After the quality control and corrections were applied, soil moisture was calculated using the equation in Desilets et al. (2010), where N0 is the neutron counts above dry soil and the other variables are fitted constants that define the shape of the calibration function. Here, the parameter N0 must be calibrated using the in situ observed soil moisture within the footprint. This procedure was previously described by Jiao et al. (2013) and Zreda et al. (2012)
4) Computing the soil moisture
Based on the calibrated N0 and corrected N1C, the hourly soil moisture was computed using the equation from the equipment manual. This procedure was previously described by Jiao et al, (2013) and Zreda et al. (2012)
For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Zhu et al. (2015) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
The dataset is generated from the "Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER)". User must have a clear statement in the article of the original data source and cite the dataset and papers in the Citation section.