(1) the frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word.
(2) the surface radiative temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer and the physical temperature by the thermocouple. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word.
(3) the soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) by the microwave drying method. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office Word.
(4) photos of each sampling point in .jpg for further reference.
Six data files were included, the ground-based K-band microwave radiometer, the ground-based L-band microwave radiometer, the frost depth, soil moisture, the surface temperature and the surface conditions.
Data Citation Zhang Lixin, Chang Sheng, Che Tao, Fang Qian, Qu Ying, Liang Xingtao, Liu Zhigang, Pan Jinmei, Peng Danqing, Ren Huazhong, Zhang Yongpan, Zhang Zhiyu, Zhao Shaojie, Zhao Tianjie, Zheng Yue, Zhou Ji. WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the Biandukou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008. Beijing Normal University; Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2008. doi:10.3972/water973.0029.db
The dataset is generated from the "Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) “, the user must have a clear statement in the article of the original data source and adopt the reference style providing by the metadata in the References section.