Spectral reflectance observation was carried out for the typical underlying surface and black and white cloth in the low reaches of the Heihe River Basin during the aviation flight experiment in 2014, which will provide basic data set for the preprocessing of the flight data. 1. Observation Instrument PRS-3500 portable spectrometer, with the spectral range is 350-2500 nm, and the reference board. 2. Samples and observation methods The samples including the black and white cloth, the cantaloupe, the Tamarix chinensis, the Populus euphratica, the reeds, the weeds, the Karelinia caspica, the sandy soil, the gobi, the Sophora alopecuroides and so on. Reflectance of the reference board was measure vertically for once and then objective reflectance were measured for five times for each observation objective. 3. Observation time The typical underlying surface vegetation observation was on days of 24 July, 27 July, 31 July, 2014. The black and white cloth simultaneous observation was on 29 July, 2014. 4. Data storage The observation recorded data were stored in excel and the original spectral data were stored in *.sed files derived from the spectrometer, which can be opened by the matched software of the spectrometer or by a txt.
This dataset contains the data of the meteorological element gradient observation system of the Sidaoqiao superstation downstream of the Heihe Hydrometeorological Observation Network from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The site is located in Sidaoqiao, Dalaihu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia. The underlying surface is Tamarix. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 101.1374E, 42.0012N, and the altitude is 873m. The air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed sensors are respectively set at 5m, 7m, 10m, 15m, 20m and 28m, with 6 layers facing the north; the wind direction sensor is set at 15m, facing the north; the barometer is installed in the waterproof box. The tipping bucket rain gauge is installed at 28m; the four-component radiometer is installed at 10m, facing south; two infrared thermometers are installed at 10m, facing south, the probe orientation is vertically downward; two photosynthetically active radiometers are installed At 10m, facing south, and the probe is vertically upward and downward respectively; the soil moisture sensor is installed 2m on the south side of the tower body, and the soil heat flow plates (self-correcting type) (3 pieces) are buried in turn in the ground 6cm deep; The average soil temperature sensor TCAV is buried in the ground 2cm, 4cm; the soil temperature probe is buried in the ground surface 0cm and underground 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm; soil moisture sensors are buried in the underground 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm. Observed items include: wind speed (WS_5m, WS_7m, WS_10m, WS_15m, WS_20m, WS_28m) (unit: m/s), wind direction (WD_15m) (unit: degree), air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m, Ta_7m, Ta_10m, Ta_15m, Ta_20m, Ta_28m and RH_5m, RH_7m, RH_10m, RH_15m, RH_20m, RH_28m) (unit: centigrade, percentage), pressure (unit: hectopascal), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), four-component radiation (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts/square meter), surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit: centigrade), up and down photosynthetically active radiation (PAR_U_up, PAR_U_down) (unit: micromol/square Msec), average soil temperature (TCAV) (unit: centigrade), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (unit: watts/square meter), soil moisture (Ms_2cm, Ms_4cm, Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_80cm) , Ms_120cm, Ms_160cm) (unit: volumetric water content, percentage), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_2cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (unit: centigrade). Processing and quality control of the observation data: (1) ensure 144 data per day (every 10 minutes), when there is missing data, it is marked by -6999; From September 8, 2014 to November 8, due to the sensor problems, the data is missing; on May 9, 2014, the soil moisture probe was re-buried, and the data before and after is inconsistent; (2) eliminate the moment with duplicate records; (3) delete the data that is obviously beyond the physical meaning or the range of the instrument; (5) the format of date and time is uniform, and the date and time are in the same column. For example, the time is: 2014-9-10 10:30; (6) the naming rules are: AWS+ site name. For hydrometeorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).
The dataset of photosynthesis was observed by LI-6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System in the natural oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin. Observation items included the main vegetation type in the lower reaches of Heihe river: Populus forest, which located in the Populus forest station and the mixed forest station of Ejinaqi. Observation periods lasted from 2014-07-24 to 2014-07-31. This dataset included the raw observation data of the Populus forest observed by LI-6400 during the observation periods. 1） Objectives of observation The photosynthetic datasets can be used in the study of plant physiological ecology characteristic and the simulation and validation for the eco-hydrological models. 2） Instrument and theory of the observation Measuring instrument: LI-6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Measuring theory: Using the infrared gas analyzer to measure the change of CO2 concentration, and then measuring the differences of CO2 concentration between the sample chamber and the referenced chamber so as to acquire the net productivity of the leaf. 3） Time and site of observation Observation site in the Populus forest station. Observation time: 2014-07-24 Observation site in the mixed forest station. Observation time: From 2014-07-25 to 2014-07-31. 4） Data processing The raw data of LI-6400 were archived in text format and can be opened by text editor or excel, the preprocessed data were in Excel format. Every time period of observation was archived in a single document, named as “date + type”.
The aim of the simultaneous observation of land surface temperature is obtaining the land surface temperature for different kinds of underlying surface, including the lager areas of homogeneous vegetation with high coverage, water, and concrete floor, while the thermal imager go into the experimental areas of the low reaches. All the land surface temperature data will be used for validation of the retrieved land surface temperature from thermal imager and the analysis of the scale effect of the land surface temperature, and finally serve for the validation of the plausibility checks of the surface temperature product from remote sensing. 1. Observation time On 1 August, 2014 2. Observation samples Three field samples were chosen in the fly zone, which were large areas of homogeneous vegetation (with high coverage), water, and concrete floor. 3. Observation method Surface temperature values were observed continuously for each sample using handheld infrared thermometers during the imager went into the flying area. 4. Instrument parameters and calibration The field of view of the handheld infrared thermometer is one degree and the emissivity was assumed to be 0.95. All instruments were calibrated on 31 July, 2014 using a black body. 5. Data storage All the observation data were stored in an excel.
250m/1km month compositing Fraction Vegetation Cover (FVC) data set of Heihe River Basin provides the results of monthly FVC synthesis in 2011-2014. The data is produced by using MODIS vegetation index products MOD13A2 and MOD13Q1 based on dimidiate pixel model.
Soil respiration observation was carried out for the typical vegetation ground in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin during the aviation flight experiment in 2014. The observation started on 23 July, 2014 and finished on 2 August, 2014. 1. Observation time Days from 23 July to 2 August, 2014 (25 July, 2014 excepted) 2. Samples and observation methods Large areas with relatively homogeneous vegetation (greater than 100 m * 100 m) were chosen as the observation samples. And combined the flux tower sites distribution of the lower reaches, five field samples closed to the sites were selected The observation sites sampled including Populus and Tamarix mixed forest, Populus, Tamarix group, bare ground and melon quadrats. 3-5 plots were observed for each samples. The PVC soil rings were installed one day before observation and kept about 5 cm out of the ground (the inner diameter of the PVC is 19.5 cm, the outer diameter is 20.0 cm, and the height is 12.0 cm). Minimal the effects to the surface of vegetation and withered matter when install the rings. In order to avoid fluctuations of the soil respiration value by the PVC rings, soil respiration rate was obtained when it returned to its original state (about 24h after the rings install). The observation time for each day was from 8:00 to 12:00 when soil respiration is relatively stable and can represent the whole day in this time. The Li-8100 Open Path soil carbon flux automatic analyzer was used (Model 8100-103) once for each plot. Cycles of observation for all plots of the five samples were completed for every morning. The soil respiration values of the samples were obtain by averaging the values of plots of the samples. 3. Observation instrument Li 8100 4. Data storage The observation recorded data were stored in excel and the original Soil respiration data were stored in 81x files.
LAI observation was carried out for the typical underlying surface in the lower reaches of Heihe River Basin during the aviation flight experiment in 2014. The observation started on 24 July, 2014 and finished on 1 August, 2014. 1. Observation time On days of 24 July, 27 July, 30 July, 31 July and 1 August, 2014 2. Samples and observation methods Large areas with homogeneous vegetation (greater than 100 m * 100 m) were chosen as the observation samples. And forty field samples were selected according to the characteristics of vegetation distribution in the downstream. The land-use types including the cantaloupe, the Tamarix chinensis, the reeds, the weeds, the Karelinia caspica, the Sophora alopecuroides and so on. LAI data were calculated according to the transmittance derived from an A value (above-canopy readings) and four B values (below readings). More than two LAI values were obtained for each sample. At the same time, the heights of the vegetation in each sample were measured. 3. Observation instrument LAI 2200 4. Data storage The observation recorded data were stored in excel and the original LAI data were stored in txt files.
This dataset contains data on river water level and flow velocity at No.3 in the intensive runoff observation in the middle reaches of Heihe River runoff from July 28, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The observation point is located at Heihe Bridge, Lan-Xin Railway, Zhangye City, Gansu Province. The riverbed is gravel and the section is stable. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is N39°2'33.08", E100°25'49.42", the altitude is 1443 meters, and the river channel width is 50 meters. The water level observation is measured by SR50 ultrasonic range finder with a frequency of 60 minutes. The flow profile observation is conducted by StreamPro micro ADCP. The data declaration includes the following two parts: Water level observation, the observation frequency is 60 minutes, unit (cm); data covering time period from July 28, 2014 to December 31, 2014; Flow observation, unit (m3); monitoring flow and obtaining water level flow curve according to different water levels. The process of the runoff changing is obtained by observing the water level process. The missing data is uniformly represented by the string -6999. For hydrometeorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to He et al. (2016).
First, Data Description The data includes stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope data of snow melt water, river water and soil water from July 2013 to April 2014. Second, Sampling Sites The snowmelt water sampling point is located in the middle of the third area, with a latitude and longitude of 99°53′28.004′′E, 38°13′25.781′′N, and the number of acquisitions is 3 times; The river water sampling point is located at the exit of the Hulugou Basin, with a latitude and longitude of 99°52′47.7′′E, 38°16′11′′N, and the sampling frequency is once a week; The soil water sampling point is located in the middle and lower part of the Hongnigou catchment area, with a sampling depth of 90cm and 180cm underground, and a latitude and longitude of 99°52'25.98′′E, 38°15′36.11′′N. Third, Testing Method The samples were measured by L2130-i ultra-high precision liquid water and water vapor isotope analyzer.
This data is a vegetation map of the upper reaches of Yingluoxia in the main stream of Heihe River, with a scale of 1:100,000 and an area of about 10,000 square kilometers. The data format is GIS vector format, which meets the data input requirements of eco-hydrological model. Map modification is still needed before publication. This version is version 2.0, and it is to be modified after compared with the survey data of the upstream sample belts of Heihe Project. Based on the "1:1 million Chinese Vegetation Map", the altitude, aspect and other terrains of the upper reaches of the Heihe River (based on ASTER GDEM) are analyzed in detail, combined with field survey data, literature, TM, ETM+ images, and Google Earth, etc., and with the optimization of the group boundary of "1:1 million Chinese Vegetation Map", this data is obtained. This data adjusts the type boundary of the 1:1 million vegetation map to a large extent, and is much more consistent with the altitude and aspect. This data can be directly used and edited in Arc GIS and its compatible software.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 email@example.com
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center