This data is a simulated output data set of 5km monthly hydrological data obtained by establishing the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, using temperature, precipitation and pressure as input data, and GAME-TIBET data as verification data. The dataset includes grid runoff and evaporation (if the evaporation is less than 0, it means deposition; if the runoff is less than 0, it means that the precipitation in the month is less than evaporation). This data is a model based on the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model, and established by using temperature, and precipitation (from itp-forcing and CMA) as input data, GLASS, MODIA, AVHRR as vegetation data, and SOILGRID and FAO as soil parameters. And by the calibration and verification of runoff，soil temperature and soil humidity, the 5 km monthly grid runoff and evaporation in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River from 1998 to 2017 was obtained. If asc can't open normally in arcmap, please delete the blacks space of the top 5 lines of the asc file.
Snow duration on the Tibetan Plateau changes relatively quickly, and the mountainous areas around the plateau are characterized by abundant snow and ice resources and active atmospheric convection. Optical remote sensing is often affected by clouds. Snow cover monitoring needs to consider the cloud-removal problem on a daily time scale. Taking full account of the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau and the characteristics of snow on the mountains, this data set adopted a combination of various cloud-removing processes and steps to gradually remove the daily snow cover by maintaining the cloud-classify accuracy of the snow cover. In addition, a step-by-step comprehensive classification algorithm was formed, and the “MODIS daily cloud-free snow cover product over the Tibetan Plateau (2002-2015)” was completed. Two snow seasons from October 1, 2009, to April 30, 2011, were selected as test data for algorithm research and accuracy verification, and the snow depth data provided by 145 ground stations in the study area were used as a ground reference. The results showed that in the plateau region, when the snow depth exceeds 3 cm, the total classification accuracy of the cloud-free snow cover products is 96.6%, and the snow cover classification accuracy is 89.0%. The whole algorithm procedure, based on WGS84 projected MODIS snow products (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1) with medium resolution, results in a small loss of cloud-removal accuracy, which made the data highly reliable.
This dataset is the snow cover dataset based on the MODIS fractional snow cover mapping algorithm Coupled Regional Approach (CRA). The CRA algorithm mainly consists of three parts. (1) First, the N-FINDR (Volume Iterative Approach) and OSP (Orthogonal Subspace Projection) are used to automatically extract the endmember according to the settings (extracting 30 end endmembers). (2) On the basis of automatic extraction, combined with the IGBG land cover type map, six types of endmembers of snow, vegetation, cloud, soil, rock and water are selected by the manual screening method, and an annual spectrum database is established according to the 2009 image. There are 3 spectra in the early, middle and late months and 36 spectra a year. (3) The established spectral database is used as a priori knowledge, and based on prior knowledge, the fully constrained linear unmixing method (FCLS) for subpixel decomposition is used to obtain the fractional snow cover products. The NDSI ratio algorithm with improved topographic effect is used to obtain the snow cover area, the spatiotemporal data are then interpolated, and, finally, the multisource data fusion with the AMSR-E microwave snow depth product is undertaken. The dataset adopts a latitude and longitude (Geographic) projection method. The datum is WGS84, and the spatial resolution is 0.005°. It provides the daily cloudless snow cover area map of the Tibetan Plateau from 2008 to 2010. The data set is stored by year and consists of 3 folders from 2008 to 2010. Each folder contains the classification results of the daily snow cover of the current year. It is a tif file with the naming rule YYYY***.tif, in which YYYY represents the year (2008-2010), and *** represents the day (001~365/ 366). It can be opened directly with ARCGIS or ENVI.
Due to the short snow duration and thin snow layer on the Tibetan Plateau, dynamic monitoring data for daily fractional snow cover are urgently needed in order to better understand water cycling and other processes. This data set is based on MODIS Snow Cover Daily L3 Global 500 m Grid data and includes the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) data product generated from MODIS/Terra data (MOD10A1) and MODIS/Aqua data (MYD10A1). The data are in the .hdf format. The projection method is sinusoidal map projection. Combining the advantages of 90 m SRTM terrain data and fractional snow cover estimation algorithms under multiple cloud coverage types, the fractional snow cover under different cloud coverage conditions can be re-estimated to meet the production requirements of the daily less cloud (< 10%) data products in High Asia. On the basis of this method, the MODIS daily fractional snow cover data set over High Asia (2002-2016) was constructed. By taking the binary snow product under cloudless conditions as a reference, the spatial and temporal comparisons between snow distribution and snow coverage show that the spatio-temporal characteristics of the product and the binary products are highly consistent. Taking the winter of 2013 as an example, when the fractional snow cover is greater than 50%, the correlation can reach 0.8628. This data set provides daily fractional snow cover data for use in studying snow dynamics, the climate and environment, hydrology, energy balance, and disaster assessment in High Asia.
The dataset of snow properties measured by the Snowfork was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area from Dec. 5-16 2007, during the pre-observation period. The aims of the measurements were to verify applicability of the instruments and to acquire snow parameters for simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne and ground-based remote sensing experiments and other control experiments. Observation items included: (1) physical quantities by direct observations: resonant frequency, the rate of attenuation and 3db bandwidth (2) physical quantities by indirect observations: snow density, snow complex permittivity (the real part and the imaginary part), snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture. Five files including raw data and processed data are kept, data by the Snowfork on Dec 5, data by BG-A MODIS on Dec 6 and 7, data in BG-B, BG-C, BG-D and BG-E on Dec 10, and data in BG-D with the microwave radiometer on Dec 14 and 16.
The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with the airborne PHI mission was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 24, 2008. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the Snowfork in BG-A. (2) Snow parameters as the snow surface temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, the snow layer temperature by the probe thermometer, the snow grain size by the handheld microscope, and snow density by the aluminum case in BG-A1, BG-A2, BG-B, BG-D, BG-E and BG-F5 (three sampling units each) from 11:11-12:35 (BJT) with the airplane overpass. 64 points were selected by four groups. (3) Snow albedo by the total radiometer in BG-A. (4) The snow spectrum by ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration) in BG-A11 Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.
The dataset of snow properties measured by the Snowfork was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area from Mar. 10 to 30, 2008, in cooperation with simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne and ground-based remote sensing experiments and other control experiments. Observation items included (1) physical quantities by direct observations: resonant frequency, the rate of attenuation and 3db bandwidth; (2) physical quantities by indirect observations: snow density, snow complex permittivity (the real part and the imaginary part), snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture. 13 files are archived, and the user guide of the sampling plot and observation background is included too.
First, Data Description The data includes stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope data of snow melt water, river water and soil water from July 2013 to April 2014. Second, Sampling Sites The snowmelt water sampling point is located in the middle of the third area, with a latitude and longitude of 99°53′28.004′′E, 38°13′25.781′′N, and the number of acquisitions is 3 times; The river water sampling point is located at the exit of the Hulugou Basin, with a latitude and longitude of 99°52′47.7′′E, 38°16′11′′N, and the sampling frequency is once a week; The soil water sampling point is located in the middle and lower part of the Hongnigou catchment area, with a sampling depth of 90cm and 180cm underground, and a latitude and longitude of 99°52'25.98′′E, 38°15′36.11′′N. Third, Testing Method The samples were measured by L2130-i ultra-high precision liquid water and water vapor isotope analyzer.
This data set provides daily snow thickness distribution data of China from October 24, 1978 to December 31, 2012, with a spatial resolution of 25km.The original data used for the inversion of the snow depth data set came from SMMR (1978-1987), SSM/I (1987-2008) and amsr-e (2002-2012) daily passive microwave bright temperature data processed by the national snow and ice data center (NSIDC).As the three sensors are mounted on different platforms, there is a certain system inconsistency in the obtained data.The time consistency of bright temperature data is improved by cross calibration of bright temperature of different sensors.Then, based on Chang algorithm, Dr. Che tao is used to carry out snow depth inversion.Refer to the data description document for specific inversion methods.
The parameter inversion study project of soil moisture and snow water equivalent on the Tibetan Plateau in the past 20 years is part of the key research plan of Environmental and Ecological Science for West China of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The person in charge is Jiancheng Shi, a researcher at the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The project ran from January 2004 to December 2007. The data collection of the project: the Monthly MODIS Snow Cover Product of Tibetan Plateau (2001-2005). Based on the image data acquired by MODIS, combined with ASTER image data, the data set carried out snow cover area classification and change analysis at a subpixel level on the Tibetan Plateau. The research mainly focused on studying the subpixel snow cover area classification algorithm, including the statistical regression method and the mixed-pixel decomposition method using the normalized snow index. In the mixed-pixel decomposition, a linear mixed model was adopted, and snow and non-snow end members were automatically extracted using the normalized snow index and the normalized vegetation index. On the basis of the subpixel snow cover area classification algorithm, the snow cover area variation on the Tibetan Plateau was analyzed. Using the method of establishing a decision tree, clouds and snow were detected, cloud-removal was performed, and the subpixel of the Tibetan Plateau was formed by synthesis and mosaicking of the time series images. The snow cover area classification database analyzes and describes the spatial distribution and variation characteristics of the snow cover area of the Tibetan Plateau.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 email@example.com
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center