This data set is based on the evaluation of existing land cover data and the evidence theory，including a 1:100,000 land use map for the year 20 2000、a 1:1,000,000 vegetation map、a 1:1,000,000 swamp-wetland map, a glacier map and a Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land cover map for China in 2001 (MODIS2001) were merged，Finally, the decision is made based on the principle of maximum trust, and a new 1KM land cover data of China in 2000 with IGBP classification system is produced. The new land cover data not only maintain the overall accuracy of China's land use data, but also supplement the information of vegetation types and vegetation seasons in China's vegetation map, update China's wetland map, add the latest information of China's glacier map, and make the classification system more general.
This data set is an upgraded version of the “Long-term series of daily snow depth dataset in China". This dataset provides daily data of snow depth distribution in China from January 1, 1979, to December 31, 2019, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. The original data used to derive the snow depth dataset are the daily passive microwave brightness temperature data (EASE-Grid) from SMMR (1979-1987), SSM/I (1987-2007) and SSMI/S (2008-2020) which were archived in the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Because the brightness temperatures come from different sensors, there is a certain system inconsistency among them. Therefore, before the derivation of snow depth, the inter-sensor calibration were performed to improve the temporal consistency of the brightness temperature data. Based on the calibrated brightness temperatures, the modified Chang algorithm developed by Dr. Tao Che, was used to retrieve daily snow depth. The algorithm details were introduced in the data specification document- “Long-term Sequence Data Set of China Snow Depth (1979-2020) Introduction. doc". The projection of the data set is latitude and longitude. The data of each day was stored in a file, and the naming convention of which is year + day; for example, 1990001 represents the first day of 1990, and 1990207 represents the 207th day of 1990. For a detailed data description, please refer to the data specification document.
This dataset (version 1.5) is derived from the complementary-relationship method, with inputs of CMFD downward short- and long-wave radiation, air temperature, air pressure, GLASS albedo and broadband longwave emissivity, ERA5-land land surface temperature and humidity, and NCEP diffuse skylight ratio, etc. This dataset covers the period of 1982-2017, and the spatial coverage is Chinese land area. This dataset would be helpful for long-term hydrological cycle and climate change research. Land surface actual evapotranspiration (Ea)，unit: mm month-1. The spatial resolution is 0.1-degree; The temporal resolution is monthly; The data type is NetCDF; This evapotranspiration dataset is only for land surface.
The data set is from February 24, 2000 to December 31, 2004, with a resolution of 0.05 degrees, MODIS data, and the data format is .hdf. It can be opened with HDFView. The data quality is good. The missing dates are as follows: 2000 1 -54 132 219-230 303 2001 111 167-182 2002 079-086 099 105 2003 123 324 351-358 2004 219 349 The number after the year is the nth day of the year Pixel values are as follows: 0: Snow-free land 1-100: Percent snow in cell 111: Night 252: Antarctica 253: Data not mapped 254: Open water (ocean) 255: Fill An example of file naming is as follows: Example: "MOD10C1.A2003121.004.2003142152431.hdf" Where: MOD = MODIS / Terra 2003 = Year of data acquisition 121 = Julian date of data acquisition (day 121) 004 = Version of data type (Version 4) 2003 = Year of production (2003) 142 = Julian date of production (day 142) 152431 = Hour / minute / second of production in GMT (15:24:31) The corner coordinates are: Corner Coordinates: Upper Left (70.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Left (70.0000000, 3.0000000) Upper Right (138.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Right (138.0000000, 3.0000000) Among them, Upper Left is the upper left corner, Lower Left is the lower left corner, Upper Right is the upper right corner, and Lower Right is the lower right corner. The number of data rows and columns is 1360, 1020 Geographical latitude and longitude coordinates, the specific information is as follows: Coordinate System is: GEOGCS ["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM ["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID ["Clarke 1866", 6378206.4,294.9786982139006, AUTHORITY ["EPSG", "7008"]]], PRIMEM ["Greenwich", 0], UNIT ["degree", 0.0174532925199433]] Origin = (70.000000000000000, 54.000000000000000)
This dataset: Editor-in-Chief: Hou Xueyu Drawing: Hou Xueyu, Sun Shizhou, Zhang Jingwei, He Miaoguang. Wang Yifeng, Kong Dezhen, Wang Shaoqing Publishing: Map Press Issue: Xinhua Bookstore Year: 1979 Scale: 1: 4,000,000 It took five years to complete from May 1972 to July 1976. In the process of drawing legends and mapping, referring to the vast majority of vegetation survey data (including maps and texts) after 1949 in China, we held more than a dozen mapping seminars involving researchers from inside and outside the institute. During the layout after the mapping work was completed, many new survey data were added, especially vegetation data in western Tibet. The nature of this map basically belongs to the current vegetation map, including two parts of natural vegetation and agricultural vegetation. The legend of natural vegetation is arranged according to the seven vegetation groups. They are mainly divided according to the appearance of plant communities and certain ecological characteristics. The concept of agricultural vegetation community, like the natural vegetation community, also has a certain life form (appearance, structure, layer), species composition and a certain ecological location. In 1990, the State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Systems of the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences completed the digitization of this map, and wrote relevant data description documents. The digitized data also adopt equal product cone projection and can be converted into other projections by GIS software. This data includes a vector file in e00 format, a Chinese vegetation coding design description, a dataset description, a vegetation data layer attribute data table, and a scanned "People's Republic of China Vegetation Map-Brief Description" and other files. Data projection: Projection: Albers false_easting: 0.000000 false_northing: 0.000000 central_meridian: 110.000000 standard_parallel_1: 25.000000 standard_parallel_2: 47.000000 latitude_of_origin: 0.000000 Linear Unit: Meter (1.000000) Geographic Coordinate System: Unknown Angular Unit: Degree (0.017453292519943299) Prime Meridian: Greenwich (0.000000000000000000) Datum: D_Unknown Spheroid: Clarke_1866 Semimajor Axis: 6378206.400000000400000000 Semiminor Axis: 6356583.799999999800000000 Inverse Flattening: 294.978698213901000000
The integration of geomorphological information in western China was completed by a team led by Dr. Xie Chuanjie, Institute of Geography, Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences. These include the national geomorphological database of 1: 4 million and the western geomorphological database of 1: 1 million. The geomorphological data of 1: 4 million are tracked, collected and collated by the Geography Department of the National Planning Commission of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, "China Geomorphological Map (1: 4 million)" edited by Li Bingyuan and "Geomorphological Map of China and Its Adjacent Areas (1: 4 million)" edited by Chen Zhiming. Scan and register the data, vectorize all registered maps by ArcMap software, and establish their own classification and code systems. Geomorphological types are divided into basic geomorphological types and morphological structure types (point, line and surface representation) according to map spots (common staining) and symbols. Data are divided into structural geomorphology and morphological geomorphology. Projection information: Projection: Albers False_Easting: 0.000000 False_Northing: 0.000000 Central_Meridian: 105.000000 Standard_Parallel_1: 25.000000 Standard_Parallel_2: 47.000000 Latitude_Of_Origin: 0.000000 Linear Unit: Meter (1.000000) Geographic Coordinate System: datumg Angular Unit: Degree (0.017453292519943299) Prime Meridian: <custom> (0.000000000000000000) Datum: D_Krasovsky_1940 Spheroid: Krasovsky_1940 Semimajor Axis: 6378245.000000000000000000 Semiminor Axis: 6356863.018773047300000000 Inverse Flattening: 298.300000000000010000
The compilation basis of frozen soil map includes: (1) frozen soil field survey, exploration and measurement data; (2) aerial photo and satellite image interpretation; (3) topo300 1km resolution ground elevation data; (4) temperature and ground temperature data. Among them, the distribution of permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau adopts the research results of nanzhuo Tong et al. (2002). Using the measured annual average ground temperature data of 76 boreholes along the Qinghai Tibet highway, regression statistical analysis is carried out to obtain the relationship between the annual average ground temperature and latitude, elevation, and based on this relationship, combined with the gtopo30 elevation data (developed under the leadership of the center for earth resources observation and science and technology, USGS) Global 1 km DEM data) to simulate the annual mean ground temperature distribution over the whole Tibetan Plateau. Taking the annual average ground temperature of 0.5 ℃ as the boundary between permafrost and seasonal permafrost, the boundary between discontinuous Permafrost on the plateau and island Permafrost on the plateau is delimited by referring to the map of ice and snow permafrost in China (1:4 million) (Shi Yafeng et al., 1988); in addition, the division map of Permafrost on the big and small Xing'an Mountains in the Northeast (Guo Dongxin et al., 1981), the distribution map of permafrost and underground ice around the Arctic (b According to rown et al. 1997) and the latest field survey data, the Permafrost Boundary in Northeast China has been revised; the Permafrost Boundary in Northwest mountains mostly uses the boundary defined in the map of ice and snow permafrost in China (1:4 million) (Shi Yafeng et al., 1988). According to the data, the area of permafrost in China is about 1.75 × 106km2, accounting for about 18.25% of China's territory. Among them, alpine permafrost is 0.29 × 106km2, accounting for about 3.03% of China's territory. For more information, please refer to the specification of "1:4 million map of glacial and frozen deserts in China" (Institute of environment and Engineering in cold and dry areas, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006)