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HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix(No.11 automatic meteorological station) of he multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (2012)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.11 in the flux observation matrix from 2 June to 18 September, 2012. The site (100.34197° E, 38.86991° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1575.65 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of radiosonde sounding observations in Zhangye National climate observatory from Jun to Aug, 2012

Our project entrust the L band radiosonde sounding encrypt observations to Zhangye National Climate Observatory, and collect regular observation twice a day. The dataset contains three times one day at 8:00, 14:00, 20:00, which can support the remote sensing image atmospheric correction and atmospheric science research. Observation Site: Zhangye National Climate Observatory located in Shajing Town, west of ZhangYe. The coordinates of this site: 39°5′15.68" N, 100°16′39.11" E。 Observation Instrument: China Meteorological Administration Operational L Band radiosonde system. Observation Time: The observation date last from 1 May, 2012 to 31 September, 2012, among which: Three times observations at 7:00-8:00, 13:00-14:00 and 19:00-20:00 during 1 June, 2012 to 31 August, 2012; twice at 7:00-8:00 and 19:00-20:00 during 2012-5-1 to 5-31 and 2012-9-1 to 9-31. Accessory data: Pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction profiles data.

2019-09-15

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(shenshawo desert station) from Jun to Sep, 2012

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Shenshawo sandy desert station in the flux observation matrix from 1 June to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.49330° E, 38.78917° N) was located in a desert surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1594 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (52203; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 4 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 4 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(Huazhaizi desert station) from Feb to Sep, 2012

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Huazhaizi desert steppe station in the flux observation matrix from 2 June to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.31860° E, 38.76519° N) was located in a desert steppe surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1731 m. There are two equipment in the site, and installed by Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAREERI) and Beijing Normal University (BNU), respectively. The installation heights and orientations of BNU were as follows: two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 2.65 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04 m), and soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04 m). For the CAREERI installation: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45A; 1, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind speed profile (03102; 0.48, 0.98, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind direction (03302; 4 m, north), air pressure (PTB210; in waterproof box), rain gauge (CTK-15PC; 0.7 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 2.5 m, south), soil temperature profile (107; -0.04, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42 and -0.5 m), soil moisture profile (ML2X; -0.02, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42, -0.5, and -0.58 m, 3 duplicates in -0.02 m). The observations included the following: (1) infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm) (%). (2) air temperature and humidity (Ta_1 m, Ta_1.99 m and Ta_2.99 m; RH_1 m, RH_1.99 m and RH_2.99 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_0.48 m, Ws_0.98 m, Ws_1.99 m and Ws_2.99 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_18 cm, Ts_26 cm, Ts_34 cm, Ts_42 cm and Ts_50 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm_1, Ms_2 cm_2, Ms_2 cm_3, Ms_10 cm, Ms_18 cm, Ms_26 cm, Ms_34 cm, Ms_42 cm, Ms_50 cm and Ms_58 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The BNU data were averaged over intervals of 10 min, The CAREERI data were averaged over intervals of 30 min. A total of 144 runs per day were recorded in BNU data and 48 records per day in CAREERI data. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2012-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.9)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.9 in the flux observation matrix from 4 June to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.38546° E, 38.87239° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1543.34 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (010C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, and Ts_4 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm and Ms_4 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

Time series dataset of the long-term dry-wet index in Western China (AD1500-BP2000)

Original information on the long-term dry-wet index (1500-2000) in western China is obtained by integrating data on dry-wet/drought-flood conditions and precipitation amounts in the western region published over more than a decade. The integrated data sets include tree rings, ice cores, lake sediments, historical materials, etc., and there are more than 50 such data sets. In addition to widely collecting representative data sets on dry-wet changes in the western region, this study also clarifies the main characteristics of the dry-wet changes and climate zones in the western region, and the long-term dry-wet index sequence was generated by extracting representative data from different zones. The data-based dry-wet index sequence has a 10-year temporal resolution for five major characteristic climate zones in the western region over nearly four hundred years and a high resolution (annual resolution) for three regions over the past five hundred years. The five major characteristic climate zones in the western region with a 10-year dry-wet index resolution over the last four hundred years are the arid regions, plateau bodies, northern Xinjiang, Hetao region, and northeastern plateau, and the three regions with a annual resolution over the last five hundred years are the northeastern plateau, Hetao region, and northern Xinjiang. For a detailed description of the data, please refer to the data file named Introduction of Dry-Wet Index Sequence Data for West China.doc.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-Dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.5)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.5 in the flux observation matrix from 4 June to 18 September, 2012. The site (100.35068° E, 38.87574° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1567.65 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45C; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (010C/020C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 4 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 4 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.4)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.4 in the flux observation matrix from 10 May to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.35753° E, 38.87752° N) was located in a residential area in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1561.87 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45C; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (010C/020C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

2019-09-13

WATER: Dataset of meteorological station observations at the Yeniugou cold region hydrological station (2008-2009)

The dataset of meteorological station observations (2008-2009) was obtained at the Yeniugou cold region hydrological station (E99°33'/N38°28', 3320m), Qilian county, Qinghai province. Observation items were multilayer (2m and 10m) of the air temperature and air humidity, the wind speed and direction, the air pressure, precipitation, the global radiation, the net radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), soil moisture (20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm), and soil heat flux. For more details, please refer to the attached Data Directions.

2019-09-13

Meteorological observation data from the integrated observation and research station of multiple spheres in Namco (2005-2016)

This data set contains the daily values of temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and total radiation observed at the Namco station from 1 October 2005 to 31 December 2016. The data set was processed as a continuous time series after the original data were quality controlled. After the systematic error caused by missing data points and sensor failure was eliminated, the data set reaches the accuracy of raw meteorological observation data required by the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The data can provide information for professionals engaged in scientific research and training related to atmospheric physics, atmospheric environment, climate, glaciers, frozen soils and other disciplines. This data set has mainly been applied in the fields of glaciology, climatology, environmental change, cold zone hydrological processes, frozen soil science, etc. The measured parameters had the following units and accuracies: Air temperature, unit: °C, accuracy: 0.1 °C; air relative humidity, unit: %, accuracy: 0.1%; wind speed, unit: m/s, accuracy: 0.1 m/s; wind direction, unit: °, accuracy: 0.1 °; air pressure, unit: hPa, accuracy: 0.1 hPa; precipitation, unit: mm, accuracy: 0.1 mm; total radiation, unit: W/m2, accuracy: 0.1 W/m2.

2019-09-12