Data overview: from September 23 to September 30, 2005 and from November 5 to November 9, 2005, the remote sensing Office of hanhanyuan Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences measured 21 hydrological sections between Yingluoxia hydrological station and zhengzhengxia hydrological station in the middle reaches of Heihe River. Data acquisition process: using two sets of zhonghaida hd8080 GPS receivers and one set of DS3 level of Southern surveying and mapping company, combining GPS and leveling. Section survey mainly includes two steps. Firstly, two differential GPS are used to select high-precision control points on both sides of the river bank or on one side of the selected section, and two GPS receivers are used to observe for 30 minutes simultaneously. Then, on the basis of these control points, the level is used for continuous measurement of the section. According to the river width, a certain number of sounding plumb lines are arranged on the section to measure the water depth and the starting point distance of each sounding plumb line. The measuring points are relatively dense in the main channel part, and the beach is relatively sparse. The distance between the two points of the main channel part is 2m. This data can provide the key basic data for the hydrological simulation of surface groundwater in the middle reaches of Heihe River.
Near-surface atmospheric driving data prepared by ETMonitor and WRF models based on remote sensing surface evapotranspiration model were used to estimate the daily surface evapotranspiration of the heihe river basin at 1km from 2009 to 2011.The coordinate system is the longitude and latitude projection, and the spatial range is 96.5e -- 102.5e, 37.5n -- 43N.Using daily data storage, data format for GEOTIFF, naming: yyyyddd_EvapoTranspiration. tif, including yyyy for years, DDD for ordinal.The data type is single-precision floating point in mm/d and the invalid value is -9.
Near-surface atmospheric driving data prepared by ETMonitor and WRF models based on remote sensing surface evapotranspiration model were used to estimate the average surface evapotranspiration of the heihe river basin with a resolution of 250m in 8 days from may to September 2012.The coordinate system is the projection of equal latitude and longitude, and the spatial range is 96.5e -- 102.5e, 37.5n -- 43N.8 days data using synthetic way of storage, the data format for GEOTIFF, naming: 2012 ddd_evapotranspiration. Tif, including a DDD, ordinal number, for example 2012121 _evapotranspiration. Tif said 2012 day ordinal number is 121-128 days, the average surface evaporation unit is mm/d.The data type is single-precision floating point with an invalid value of -9.
From May 25, 2012 to September 8, 2012, observation was made at 3100m grassland weather station in Tianlaochi watershed of Qilian mountain. The instrument was a 20cm evaporating dish, a round metal basin with a diameter of 20 cm and a height of 10 cm. The mouth of the basin was blade-shaped. In order to prevent birds and animals from drinking water, a trumpet-shaped wire mesh ring was sleeved on the upper part of the mouth. During measurement, the instrument shall be placed on the shelf with the mouth 70cm from the ground, and quantitative clear water shall be put in every day. After 24 hours, the remaining water quantity shall be measured by the dosage cup, and the reduced water quantity shall be the evaporation capacity. Data are daily evaporation from May 25, 2012 to September 8, 2012.
From June 10, 2011 to September 2, 2011, the observation instrument of 3100m grassland weather station in Tianlaochi watershed of Qilian mountain was a 20cm evaporating pan, a round metal basin with a diameter of 20 cm and a height of 10 cm, and the mouth of the basin was blade-shaped. In order to prevent birds and animals from drinking water, a trumpet-shaped wire mesh ring was set on the upper part of the mouth of the vessel. During measurement, the instrument shall be placed on the shelf with the mouth 70cm from the ground, and quantitative clear water shall be put in every day. After 24 hours, the remaining water quantity shall be measured by the dosage cup, and the reduced water quantity shall be the evaporation capacity. Data are daily evaporation from June 10, 2011 to September 2, 2011.
Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important link of water cycle and energy transmission in the earth system. The accurate acquisition of ET is helpful to the study of global climate change, crop yield estimation, drought monitoring, and has important guiding significance for regional and even global water resources planning and management. With the development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration has become an effective way to obtain regional and global evapotranspiration. At present, a variety of low and medium resolution surface evapotranspiration products have been produced and released in business. However, there are still many uncertainties in the model mechanism, input data, parameterization scheme of remote sensing estimation of surface evapotranspiration model. Therefore, it is necessary to use the real method. The accuracy of remote sensing estimation of evapotranspiration products was quantitatively evaluated by sex test. However, in the process of authenticity test, there is a problem of spatial scale mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value of surface evapotranspiration and the site observation value, so the key is to obtain the relative truth value of satellite pixel scale surface evapotranspiration. Based on the flux observation matrix of "multi-scale observation experiment of non-uniform underlying surface evaporation" in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin from June to September 2012, the stations 4 (Village), 5 (corn), 6 (corn), 7 (corn), 8 (corn), 11 (corn), 12 (corn), 13 (corn), 14 (corn), 15 (corn), 17 (orchard) and the lower reaches of January to December 2014 Oasis Populus euphratica forest station (Populus euphratica forest), mixed forest station (Tamarix / Populus euphratica), bare land station (bare land), farmland station (melon), sidaoqiao station (Tamarix) observation data (automatic meteorological station, eddy correlator, large aperture scintillation meter, etc.) are used as auxiliary data, and the high-resolution remote sensing data (surface temperature, vegetation index, net radiation, etc.) are used as auxiliary data. See Fig. 1 for the distribution map. Considering the land Through direct test and cross test, six scale expansion methods (area weight method, scale expansion method based on Priestley Taylor formula, unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method, artificial neural network, random forest, depth belief network) were compared and analyzed, and finally a comprehensive method (on the underlying surface) was optimized. The area weight method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the unequal weight surface to surface regression Kriging method is used when the underlying surface is moderately inhomogeneous; the random forest method is used when the underlying surface is highly inhomogeneous) to obtain the relative true value (spatial resolution of 1km) of the surface evapotranspiration pixel scale of MODIS satellite transit instantaneous / day in the middle and lower reaches of the flux observation matrix area respectively, and to observe through the scintillation with large aperture. The results show that the overall accuracy of the data set is good. The average absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the pixel scale relative truth instantaneous and day-to-day is 2.6% and 4.5% for the midstream satellite, and 9.7% and 12.7% for the downstream satellite, respectively. It can be used to verify other remote sensing products. The evapotranspiration data of the pixel can not only solve the problem of spatial mismatch between the remote sensing estimation value and the station observation value, but also represent the uncertainty of the verification process. For all site information and scale expansion methods, please refer to Li et al. (2018) and Liu et al. (2016), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2016).
This data is a simulated output data set of 5km monthly hydrological data obtained by establishing the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, using temperature, precipitation and pressure as input data, and GAME-TIBET data as verification data. The dataset includes grid runoff and evaporation (if the evaporation is less than 0, it means deposition; if the runoff is less than 0, it means that the precipitation in the month is less than evaporation). This data is a model based on the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model, and established by using temperature, and precipitation (from itp-forcing and CMA) as input data, GLASS, MODIA, AVHRR as vegetation data, and SOILGRID and FAO as soil parameters. And by the calibration and verification of runoff，soil temperature and soil humidity, the 5 km monthly grid runoff and evaporation in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River from 1998 to 2017 was obtained. If asc can't open normally in arcmap, please delete the blacks space of the top 5 lines of the asc file.
The site No. 1 EC towers were used for the intercomparison field in the Yingke irrigation district (1552.75 m, 38°59′51.71″ N, 100°24′38.76″ E). The land surface is homogeneous and dominated by vegetables in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The precipitation comparison dataset was collected between 12 June, 2012, and 22 November, 2012. The dataset includes data for five different rain gauge types, i.e., pit gauge, Chinese standard manual precipitation gauge, siphon rain gauge, tipping bucket gauge, and weighting gauge. The mountain heights for these gauges were 0.0, 0.7, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.5 m, respectively. The data were recorded every 1 hour, 1 day, 10 minutes, 10 minutes, and 10 minutes, respectively. The main objective of the data collection was to perform an intercomparison of in situ rainfall measurements. The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: 1) The water level data which collected from the hydrological station were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. 2) Data out the normal range records were rejected. 3) Unphysical data were rejected. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), He et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
The dataset of runoff plot observations was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area from Jun. 19 to Oct. 17, 2008. The runoff plot (38°03′, 100°13′, 3472m, with a slope of 20.16°) was 10m long, 5m wide and 80cm deep, with soil depth about 50cm and sandy clay and gravels beneath (50-80cm). The main vegetation type is scrub (about 20cm high) and grass (about 3cm high). Observation items included the surface flow, interflow (80cm down the land surface), and precipitation at a fixed point at the right of the runoff plot. One subfolder and two data files (directions on data observations and raw data) were archived.
The data set collects the long-term monitoring data on atmosphere, hydrology and soil from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Multisphere in Namco, the Integrated Observation and Research Station of Atmosphere and Environment in Mt. Qomolangma, and the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Alpine Environment in Southeast Tibet. The data have three resolutions, which include 0.1 seconds, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours. The temperature, humidity and pressure sensors used in the field atmospheric boundary layer tower (PBL) were provided by Vaisala of Finland. The wind speed and direction sensor was provided by MetOne of the United States. The radiation sensor was provided by APPLEY of the United States and EKO of Japan. Gas analysis instrument was provided by Licor of the United States, and the soil moisture content, ultrasonic anemometer and data collector were provided by CAMPBELL of the United States. The observing system is maintained by professionals on a regular basis (2-3 times a year), the sensors are calibrated and replaced, and the collected data are downloaded and reorganized to meet the meteorological observation specifications of the National Weather Service and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The data set was processed by forming a time continuous sequence after the raw data were quality-controlled, and the quality control included eliminating the systematic error caused by missing data and sensor failure.
Contact SupportNorthwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS 0931-4967287 firstname.lastname@example.org
LinksNational Tibetan Plateau Data Center