1) Data content: this data is the chromatin open group data of umbilical cord endothelial cells of Plateau Tibetan and plain Han people generated during the implementation of the project, including 5 cases of Plateau Tibetan umbilical cord endothelial cell chromatin open group data and 5 cases of plain Han umbilical cord endothelial cell chromatin open group data. The amount of chromatin open group data of each cell is > 15g sequencing depth, which can be used to study the high-risk factors The chromatin opening pattern and gene expression regulation pattern of the original Tibetan population and the plain Han population in high altitude hypoxia environment. 2) Data sources and processing methods: Based on our own data, we used the 150 BP pair end sequencing method of Illumina x-ten. 3) Data quality: > 15g data volume, q30 > 90%. 4) Data application achievements and prospects: the data are used to verify the open mode of cell chromatin and gene expression change mode of high altitude hypoxia adaptation genes under hypoxia environment.
It is not clear how the Tibetan people adapt to the extreme environment on the plateau. As an important phenotype, metabolism plays an important role in maintaining the normal biological function of individuals. Previous studies have shown that some small metabolic molecules can adapt to the extreme environment by regulating energy metabolism, oxidative stress and other biological processes. In view of this, the project is expected to find the relationship between human metabolism and extreme environmental adaptation by studying the unique metabolic characteristics of Tibetan people compared with plain people, and then study the plateau adaptation mechanism of Tibetan people from the perspective of metabolism. This data is the metabolomic data generated during the implementation of the project, and the current data includes the metabolomic data of 30 people in the plain. The combined analysis of these data and the subsequent metabolomic data can be used to study the metabolic characteristics of Tibetan people in the plateau hypoxia environment. This data set is the update and continuation of metabolomic data v1.0 of modern Chinese population.
The whole mitochondrial genomes of 68 Tibetan samples were sequenced by high-throughput second-generation sequencing. The average depth of sequencing was 1000 ×, ensuring that the mitochondrial genome of each sample was completely covered (100%). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we control the quality of these data to ensure that there is no sample pollution and other quality problems. According to the phylogenetic tree, each individual was allocated into haplogroups. The results showed that in Lhasa Tibetan population, M9a1c1b1a was the highest (19.12%), followed by G2 (13.23%), M13a (11.76%), C4a (7.35%), D4 (7.35%), A11a1a (5.88%), M9a1b (5.88%), and F1c, F1g, B4, F1d, M62b, F1a, F1b, G1, M11, M8a, U7a, Z3a. These haplogroups have different originations, including Paleolithic components (M13a, M62b, M9a1b, etc.), northern China millet farmers’ components (M9a1c1b1a and A11a1a), components distributed mainly in southern East Asia (F1a, etc.), northern East Asian haplogroups (C4a, D4, etc.). It is worth noting that the maternal component of Lhasa Tibetans is mainly composed of millet agricultural population in northern China, indicating the important impact of genetic input of millet agricultural population in northern China on the genetic structure of the population in this area. Taken together, the maternal genetic structure of Lhasa Tibetan population exhibits time stratification, which may represent the genetic imprint of different population entering the region in different periods.
To investigate the paternal genetic structure of Tibetans from Shigatse, 434 male samples were collected from Shigatse, Tibet. Firstly, SNP genotyping was performed to allocate samples into haplogroups. To further evaluate the genetic diversity of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroup in Tibetan populations from Lhasa, eight commonly used Y-chromosomal STR (short tandem repeat) loci (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) were genotyped using fluorescence-labeled primers with an ABI 3130XL Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA). The results indicated that haplogroup O-M175 displayed highest frequency in Shigatse Tibetans (47.00%, the majority of its sublineages were O2-M122), followed by haplogroups D-M174 (40.78%, with most of the samples belonging to D-P47 (20.97%) and D-N1(16.82%)). Another relatively rare lineages in Shigatse Tibetans were C-M217 (1.84%), R1a1- M17 (1.61%), N1-LLY22G (5.76%), Q-M242 (0.69%). In combination with the data from Lhasa that released in 2019, our Y chromosome data of Tibetans from different locations on the Tibetan Plateau will be very helpful to understanding the paternal genetic structure of Tibetans. Moreover, the genetic history of Tibetans can also be dissected by phylogeographic and coalescent analyses.
The western and northeastern Yunnan is located in the southeast of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Previous genetic studies have shown that there are substantial genetic imprints of late Paleolithic human in this region, and these ancient genetic imprints are likely to spread further to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Therefore, the genetic study of the population in this area is helpful to clarify the migration history of early human settlement in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. In this study, we studied the genetics of Dai people in different areas of Yunnan Province. The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions of 264 Dai individuals were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we control the quality of these data to ensure that there is no sample contamination and other quality problems. According to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence, the variants were recorded. According to the phylogenetic tree of mitochondrial DNA in the world population (PhyloTree.org), each sample was allocated into certain haplogrop. Based on the published mtDNA data of Dai people in other areas, the maternal genetic structure and formation mechanism of Dai population were systematically studied. The results showed that there was a close genetic relationship among the Dai populations in different regions, and the haplogroups (F1a, M7B and B5a) shared by these populations could be traced back to southern China, suggesting that the Dai population might have originated in southern China and migrated southward to the mainland and Southeast Asia in the Iron or Bronze age. The genetic differentiation of the Dai population in different regions is consistent with the phenomenon that their language and culture have some differences, which indicates that the Dai people and the surrounding populations in the southward migration.
We obtained the whole genome variation data of 30 Tibetan individuals. The SNP typing of 30 samples was carried out by DNA array method, and about 700000 loci (including nuclear genome, mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome) of each sample were obtained. First, after extracting genomic DNA, DNA amplification, enzymatic fragmentation, precipitation and re suspension were carried out. After the sample was incubated overnight and hybridized with beadchip, the DNA was annealed to obtain a site-specific 50 mer probe, covalently coupled with an Infinium bead type. Then Infinium XT was used to extend the enzyme base to give the allele specificity, and then fluorescent staining was carried out. The fluorescence intensity of the beads was detected by iSCAN system, and the Illumina software automatically performed the analysis and genotype recognition. Finally, the SNP typing results of each sample were obtained. Based on the above data, relevant biological information analysis (mainly including chip site quality control analysis, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis) was carried out. This data is helpful to analyze the genetic structure of Tibetan population from the perspective of nuclear genome, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. By comparing with the data of people around the plateau, we can trace the migration and settlement history of the plateau population comprehensively.
This data set includes a monthly composite of 30 m × 30 m surface vegetation coverage products in the Qilian Mountain Area in 2019. In this paper, the maximum value composition (MVC) method is used to synthesize monthly NDVI products and calculate FVC by using the reflectance data of Landsat 8 and sentinel 2 red and near infrared channels. The data is monthly synthesized by Google Earth engine cloud platform, and the index is calculated by the model. The missing pixels are interpolated with good quality, which can be used in environmental change monitoring and other fields.
The data includes the runoff components of the main stream and four tributaries in the source area of the Yellow River. In 2014-2016, spring, summer and winter, based on the measurement of radon and tritium isotopic contents of river water samples from several permafrost regions in the source area of the Yellow River, and according to the mass conservation model and isotope balance model of river water flow, the runoff component analysis of river flow was carried out, and the proportion of groundwater supply and underground ice melt water in river runoff was preliminarily divided. The quality of the data calculated by the model is good, and the relative error is less than 20%. The data can provide help for the parameter calibration of future hydrological model and the simulation of hydrological runoff process.
1) Data content: this data is the placenta umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) transcriptome data of high altitude Tibetan and lowland Han population generated during the implementation of the project, including the RNA-seq data of 3 high altitude Tibetan HUVEC and 3 lowland Han placenta HUVEC. Each RNA-seq data is 6G sequencing depth, which can be used to study the effect of high altitude Tibetan population and lowland Han population for gene expression patterns at hypoxic environment. 2) Data source and processing method: own data, the pair end 150bp sequencing method using Illumina x-ten sequencing platform. 3) Data quality: 6G data depth, q30 > 90%. 4) Results and prospects of data application: the data will be used to validate the gene expression pattern of high altitude hypoxia adaptation gene to hypoxia environment at the cell level.
The average altitude of the Tibetan Plateau is more than 4000 meters. The harsh environment such as high cold and low oxygen poses a huge challenge to human survival. However, since the late Paleolithic period, Tibetan people in the plateau have reached the Plateau, and in the Neolithic period, people began to permanently settled on the high-altitude areas on a large scale. The history of population migration in this process has become the focus of different fields. In order to analyze the genetic structure of Tibetan population from the perspective of the whole genome and trace back the history of human settlement on the plateau, we obtained the whole genome variation data of 20 Tibetan individuals. The SNP typing of 20 samples was carried out by DNA array method, and about 700000 loci (including nuclear genome, mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome) of each sample were obtained. Based on the above data, relevant biological information analysis (mainly including chip site quality control analysis, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis) was carried out. This data is helpful to analyze the genetic structure of Tibetan population from the perspective of nuclear genome, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. By comparing with the data of people around the plateau, we can trace the migration and settlement history of the plateau population comprehensively.