Current Browsing: Soil Science


WATER: Dataset of the survey at the sampling plots in the transit zone between oasis and desert in the Linze station foci experimental area from May to Jun, 2008

The dataset of the survey at the sampling plots in the transit zone between oasis and desert was obtained in the Linze station foci experimental area. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture and temperature of the soil profiles (0-10cm, 10-20cm, 20-30cm and 30-40cm) measured by the cutting ring method (50cm^3, once each layer) and the probe thermometer (15cm, twice each layer) on May 25, 2008. Data were archived as Excel files. (2) biomass (green weight and dry weight, samples from 0.5m×0.5m) with photos measured by the plant harvesting in LY07 quadrate on Jun. 22, 2008. Data were archived as Excel files. (3) vegetation coverage measured by the diagonal method on Jun. 22, 2008. By estimating the coverage along the two diagonals, the total coverage of the plot can be developed. Data were archived as Excel files.

2019-09-16

WATER: Dateset of the ground-based RPG-8CH-DP microwave radiometer observations in the Biandukou foci experimental area

The dateset of the ground-based RPG-8CH-DP microwave radiometer observations was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from Mar. 14 to 17, 2008. Observation items included the brightness temperature by the ground-based microwave radiometer (18.7GHz and 36.5GHz), the soil temperature by the thermal resistor, the gravimetric soil moisture by the microwave drying method, and the surface roughness by the grid board. The wheat stubble land (38°15'44.13"N, 100°55'35.34"E) was chosen for continuous observations from 11:00 to 24:00 on Mar. 14, with the incidence 20°-70° and the step length 5°. The rape stubble land (38°15'23.17"N, 100°58'37.84"E) was chosen for continuous observations from 10:00 to 21:30 on Mar. 16, with the incidence 20°-70° and the step length 5°. The deep plowed land (38°18'8.28"N, 101° 3'27.22"E) was chosen for short time observations from 17:26 to 19:20 on Mar. 17, with the azimuth angle 240°-300° and the step length 10°, the incidence 40°-70° and the step length 5°. The brightness temperature was archived as .BRT and .txt files (the ASCII format). Each row in .txt was listed by year, month, date, hour, minute, second, 6.925GHz (h), 6.925GHz (v), 10.65GHz (h), 10.65GHz (v) , 18.7GHz (h), 18.7GHz (v), 36.5GHz (h), 36.5GHz (v), the elevation angle, and the azimuth angle. Values for 6.925GHz and 10.65GHz were zero due to malfunction. The roughness data were obtained by the grid board and the camera and the RMS height (cm) and correlation length (cm) were also calculated and archived, which could be opened by Notepad or Microsoft Office Word. Those provide reliable reference for the roughness of the same land cover type. The gravimetric soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) was measured by the microwave drying method. The file can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. The shallow layer soil moisture was measured by hydra prob from 12:00 to 17:00 on 14 and by the Hydra probe (straight downward for 0-5cm) and HH2 (level into the soil surface) on 16. The surface temperature was measured by the thermal resistor. The file can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. Four data files were included, the brightness temperature, the surface temperature, the soil moisture and the surface roughness.

2019-09-16

HiWATER: Dataset of infrared temperature in Zhanye Airport desert

Zhanye Airport desert observation system can offer in situ calibration data for TASI, WiDAS and L band sensor used in aerospace experiment. Observation Site: This point is located in a large, homogeneous and flatten desert near by Zhangye Airport. The main vegetation type is Sparse and low shrub. The coordinates of this site: 38°4′41.30" N, 100°41′48.10" E. Observation Instrument: The observation system consists of two SI-111 infrared radiometers (Campbell, USA), one installed vertically downward to land surface, another face to south of zenith angle 35°. SI-111 sensor installed at 4.0 m height. Observation Time: This site operates from 10 June, 2012 to today. Observation data laagered by every 5 seconds uninterrupted. Output data contained sample data of every 5 seconds and mean data of 1 minute. Accessory data: Land surface infrared temperature (by SI-111), sky infrared temperature (by SI-111) can be obtained. Dataset is stored in *.dat file, which can be read by Microsoft excel or other text processing software (UltraEdit, et. al). Table heads meaning: TarT_Atm, Sky infrared temperature @ facing south of zenith angle 35° (℃); SBT_Atm, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured sky; TarT_Sur, land surface infrared temperature @ 4.0 m height; SBT_Sur, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured land surface. Dataset is stored day by day, named as: data format + site name + interval time + date + time. The detailed information about data item showed in data header introduction in dataset.

2019-09-16

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: cold and arid research network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Xiyinghe station, 2018)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Xiyinghe Station from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (101.853E, 37.561N) was located on a alpine meadow in the Menyuan,Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3639 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (2, 4, and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 2, 4, and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1.5 m), rain gauge (4 m), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), soil heat flux (-0.05 m and -0.1m in south of tower), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (-0.2 and -0.4 m in south of tower), sunshine duration sensor (4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_2 m, Ta_4 m, and Ta_8 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, and RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_2 m, Ws_4 m, and Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_2 m, WD_4 m, and WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s/m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5 cm, Gs_10cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm) (%, volumetric water content), soil water potential (SWP_20cm , SWP_40cm)(kpa) , soil conductivity (Ec_20cm, Ec_40cm)(μs/cm), sun time (h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The meteorological data were missing during Aug. 29 to Oct.18 because of unstable power supply due to battery box flooding; The wind speed and direction profile data were rejected because of sensor failure; The precipitation data were rejected because of program error; The air humidity data before Mar. 2 were rejected due to program error; (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30.

2019-09-16

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: cold and arid research network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station, 2018)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (93.708° E, 40.348° N) was located on a wetland in the Dunhuang west lake, Gansu Province. The elevation is 990 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4m and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4m and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (-0.05 and -0.1m ), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (below the vegetation in the south of tower, -0.05 and -0.2 m), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m, WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_0.05m, Gs_0.1m) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0.05m, Ts_0.2m) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_0.05m, Ms_0.2m) (%, volumetric water content), soil conductivity (Ec_0.05m, Ec_0.2m)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The data were missing during Jan. 23 to Jan. 24 because of collector failure; the data during Mar. 17 and May 24 were wrong because of the tower body tilt; The air humidity data were rejected due to program error. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30.

2019-09-15

WATER: Dataset of automatic meteorological observations at the Binggou cold region hydrometerological station (2007-2009)

The dataset of automatic meteorological observations was obtained at the Binggou cold region hydrometerological station (N38°04′/E100°13′), south of Qilian county, Qinghai province, from Sep. 25, 2007 to Dec. 31, 2009. The experimental area with paramo and riverbed gravel, situated in the upper stream valley of Heihe river, is ideal for the flat and open terrain and hills and mountains stretching outwards. The items were multilayer (2m and 10m) of the air temperature and air humidity, the wind speed, the air pressure, precipitation, four components of radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm and 120cm), soil moisture (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm and 120cm), and soil heat flux (5cm and 15cm). The raw data were level0 and the data after basic processes were level1, in which ambiguous ones were marked; the data after strict quality control were defined as Level2. The data files were named as follows: station+datalevel+AMS+datadate. Level2 or above were strongly recommended to domestic users. The period from Sep. 25, 2007 to Mar. 12, 2008 was the pre-observing duration, during which hourly precipitation data (fragmented) and the soil temperature and soil moisture data were to be obtained. Stylized observations began from Mar. 12, 2008. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide.

2019-09-15

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: cold and arid research network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station, 2018)

This dataset includes data recorded by Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dayekou Station from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.285° E, 38.555° N) was located on a glassland in the Dayekou, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 2694 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (8 m), air pressure (2 m), rain gauge (2 m), infrared temperature sensors (2 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (below the vegetation, -0.05 m; towards south), soil soil temperature/moisture/electrical conductivity profile (-0.05 m) photosynthetically active radiation (2 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (2 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(2 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_8m; RH_3m, RH_5 m, RH_8m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_8m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_8m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil heat flux (Gs_5 cm) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_5cm)(℃), soil moisture (Ms_5cm)(%, volumetric water content), photosynthetically active radiation (μmol/ (s m^2)), soil water potential (Swp_5cm)(kpa), soil conductivity (Ec_5cm)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The data were missing during Aug 29 to Oct 18 because the battery is unstable; Some meterological data were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger (1.3-1.6;1.8-1.11;1.14-1.20;1.23-1.30;2.9-2.22;2.28-3.23;3.28-5.12); The air humidity data were rejected due to program error. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30.

2019-09-15

WATER: Dataset of automatic meteorological observations at the Dayekou Maliantan grassland station in the Dayekou watershed from Nov to Dec, 2007

The dataset of automatic meteorological observations was obtained at the Dayekou Maliantan grassland station (E100°18′/N38°33′, 2817m) from Nov. 2, 2007 to Dec. 31, 2009. The experimental area with a flat and open terrain was slightly sloping from southeast to northwest. The landscape was mainly grassland, with vegetation 0.2-0.5m high. Observation items were multilayer gradient (2m and 10m) of the wind speed, the air temperature and air humidity, the air pressure, precipitation, four components of radiation, the multilayer soil temperature (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, and 120cm), soil moisture (5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, and 120cm), and soil heat flux (5cm & 15cm). The raw data were level0 and the data after basic processes were level1, in which ambiguous ones were marked; the data after strict quality control were defined as Level2. The data files were named as follows: station+datalevel+AMS+datadate. Level2 or above were strongly recommended to domestic users. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide.

2019-09-15

HiWATER: Simultaneous observation dataset of land surface temperature in the lower of Heihe River Basin on Aug. 01, 2014

The aim of the simultaneous observation of land surface temperature is obtaining the land surface temperature for different kinds of underlying surface, including the lager areas of homogeneous vegetation with high coverage, water, and concrete floor, while the thermal imager go into the experimental areas of the low reaches. All the land surface temperature data will be used for validation of the retrieved land surface temperature from thermal imager and the analysis of the scale effect of the land surface temperature, and finally serve for the validation of the plausibility checks of the surface temperature product from remote sensing. 1. Observation time On 1 August, 2014 2. Observation samples Three field samples were chosen in the fly zone, which were large areas of homogeneous vegetation (with high coverage), water, and concrete floor. 3. Observation method Surface temperature values were observed continuously for each sample using handheld infrared thermometers during the imager went into the flying area. 4. Instrument parameters and calibration The field of view of the handheld infrared thermometer is one degree and the emissivity was assumed to be 0.95. All instruments were calibrated on 31 July, 2014 using a black body. 5. Data storage All the observation data were stored in an excel.

2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with airborne PLMR mission in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe on July 10, 2012

On July 10, 2012, the airborne flight and ground observation was synchronously carried out in the PLMR quadrat of Yingke Oasis and the Huazhaizi Desert. PLMR (Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer) is a dual-polarized (H/V) L-band microwave radiometer with a center frequency of 1.413 GHz, a bandwidth of 24 MHz, and a resolution of 1 km (relative flight height of 3 km).The radiometer has 6 beams to observe synchronously, and the incident angles are ±7º,±21.5º,±38.5º, and the sensitivity is less than 1K. The flight observation mainly covers the artificial oasis eco-hydrological test area in the middle reaches. This ground-synchronized data set provides a basic ground dataset for developing and validating passive microwave remote sensing inversion soil moisture algorithms. Quadrat and sampling strategy: The observation area is located in the transition zone between the southern margin of Zhangye Oasis and Anyang beach desert, the west side of Zhang (Zhangye)-Da (Daman) highway. It is divided into two parts by the main canal of the Dragon Canal from North to South. The Southwest area is a desert quadrat with the size of 1 km×1 km. The desert is relatively homogeneous, so soil moisture of 5 points in the 1 km quadrat are collected (1 point of each corner and the center point, in the actual measurement process, several extra points can be measured along the road). The four corner points are 600 meters away from each other,except the diagonal direction. And the southwest corner point is Huazhaizi Desert Station, for the convenience of comparison with weather station data. On the northeast side, a large size quadrat of 6 km×1.6 km is selected for simultaneous observation of the oasis underlying surface.In order to obtain the brightness temperature comparison with the PLMR observation, the quadrat was chose based on the following factors :surface coverage representative, avoiding the residential and greenhouses, crossing the oasis farmland and part of the Southern desert, accessibility, and observation time(road consumption). Taking the resolution of PLMR observations into consideration, in the synchronous observation, 11 sampling lines (East-West distribution) were collected with an interval of 160 meters from the East to the West. Each line from the North to the South was separated by 21 points with an interval of 80 meters. And 4 Hydraprobe Data Acquisition System (HDAS, Reference 2) were used to measure simultaneously. Measurement contents: About 230 points of the quadrat were collected, 2 observations were performed on each point, that is, 2 observations were performed on each sampling point of the film mulched corn field, 1 inside the film (marked as a in the data record), 1 outside the film (marked as b in the data record). Since the HDAS system useed the POGO portable soil sensor, the soil temperature, soil moisture (volumetric water content), loss tangent, soil electrical conductivity, soil complex dielectric real part and imaginary part were obtained by observation. No special simultaneous sampling of vegetation was carried out on the same day. Data: The data set includes two parts: soil moisture observation and vegetation observation. The former saves the data as a vector file, the spatial position is the position of each sampling point (WGS84+UTM 47N), and the measurement information of soil moisture is recorded in the attribute file.

2019-09-15