Current Browsing: cryosphere

Dataset of ground temperature in Jiagedaqi along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (Version 1.0) (2012-2018)

The borehole is about 7km away from Jiagedaqi City (50.47°N, 124.23°E), located in a wetland with about 80cm-thick peaty soil. There are three boreholes, and one is 2m away from the pipe center and 20m deep, the second is 16.6m away and 20m deep, and the third is 50m away from the second pipeline and 60 m deep. Based on the temperature borehole with a diameter of 40 mm and depths of 20 to 60 m, the ground temperature along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline was measured using the thermistor sensor, which was assembled by State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, and calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.05℃. Therefore, the critical characteristic parameters such as ground stratigraphy, temperature of permafrost, surface temperature and active layer thickness were obtained. During the period from October 2014 to October 2017, ground temperatures in the T1 and T2 boreholes were collected manually. The ground temperatures in T3 was collected automatically and continuously since 12 June of 2018. Then the continuous and complete record of ground temperature data uploaded to the specified server (fixed IP address) by the wireless transmission module utilizing cellular networks. From these measured data along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route, the development characteristics and historical evolution of permafrost, and its response to the climate change can be analyzed.


Snow cover dataset based on optical instrument remote sensing with 1km spatial resolution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (1989-2018)

Snow cover dataset is produced by snow and cloud identification method based on optical instrument observation data, covering the time from 1989 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground under clear sky or transparent thin cloud is covered by snow. The input data sources include AVHRR L1 data of NOAA and MetOp serials of satellites, and L1 data corresponding to AVHRR channels taken from TERRA/MODIS. Decision Tree algorithm (DT) with dynamic thresholds is employed independent of cloud mask and its cloud detection emphasizes on reserving snow, particularly under transparency cirrus. It considers a variety of methods for different situations, such as ice-cloud over the water-cloud, snow in forest and sand, thin snow or melting snow, etc. Besides those, setting dynamic threshold based on land-surface type, DEM and season variation, deleting false snow in low latitude forest covered by heavy aerosol or soot, referring to maximum monthly snowlines and minimum snow surface brightness temperature, and optimizing discrimination program, these techniques all contribute to DT. DT discriminates most snow and cloud under normal circumstances, but underestimates snow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in October. Daily product achieves about 95% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.


Greenland ice sheet mass change data products (2002-2019)

This data set includes 2002/04-2019/12 Greenland ice sheet mass changes derived from satellite gravimetry measurements. The satellite gravimetry data come from the joint NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment mission twin satellites (GRACE, 2002/04 to 2017/06) and its successor, GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO, 2018/06 to present). In order to fill the data gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO, we further utilize gravity field solutions derived from high-low GNSS tracking data of ESA's Swarm 3-satellite constellation whose primary scientific objective is geomagnetic surveying. The data set is provided in Matlab data format, the ice sheet mass changes are transformed to equivalent water height in meters, expressed on 0.25°x0.25° grid with monthly temporal resolution. This data set can be used to study the characteristics of Greenland ice sheet mass changes in recent two decades and their relation with the global climate change.


Tibetan Plateau glacier data - TPG2017 (v1.0)

Based on the multispectral remote sensing data of 210 Landsat 8 oli satellites, corrected and inlaid as false color composite image (RGB: 654), the method of artificial visual interpretation is adopted, and the result of band ratio method is referred, combined with SRTM DEM v4.1 data and Google data The images of earth and hj1a / 1b satellites in different seasons of the same year, excluding the influence of mountain shadow and seasonal snow, referring to the first and second glacial cataloguing data in China, excluding the steep cliffs and exposed bedrock in non glacial areas, comprehensively extracting the thematic vector data of net glaciers, excluding the surface moraine coverage area with unclear glacier end position, and the accuracy of glacial boundary digitization is half Pixel (15m). Through comparative analysis, it can be seen that the mountain glacier data extracted based on multi data sources, reference to multi method results and integration of expert experience and knowledge is more accurate.


Glacial lake inventory of High Mountain Asia

The data set integrated glacier inventory data and 426 Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images, and adopted manual visual interpretation to extract glacial lake boundaries within a 10-km buffer from glacier terminals using ArcGIS and ENVI software, normalized difference water index maps, and Google Earth images. It was established that 26,089 and 28,953 glacial lakes in HMA, with sizes of 0.0054–5.83 km2, covered a combined area of 1692.74 ± 231.44 and 1955.94 ± 259.68 km2 in 1990 and 2018, respectively.The current glacial lake inventory provided fundamental data for water resource evaluation, assessment of glacial lake outburst floods, and glacier hydrology research in the mountain cryosphere region


Simulation of the permafrost distribution over the upper reaches of the Heihe River (1993-2012)

This data is obtained by spatial interpolation and permafrost simulation through the surface temperature at 0 cm of nine stations in and outside the source area of the upper reaches of Heihe River. In the figure, 1 represents seasonal frozen soil and 2 represents permafrost. The data is in TIFF format, WGS-84 is used for projection, and the spatial range is 37.7263n-39.0976n, 98.5769e-101.1608e.


Data on glacial lakes in the TPE (V1.0) (1990, 2000, 2010)

There are three types of glacial lakes: supraglacial lakes, lakes attached to the end of the glacier and lakes not attached to the end of the glacier. Based on this classification, the following properties are studied: the variation in the number and area of glacial lakes in different basins in the Third Pole region, the changes in extent in terms of size and area, distance from glaciers, the differences in area changes between lakes with and without the supply of glacial melt water runoff, the characteristics of changes in the glacial lake area with respect to elevation, etc. Data source: Landsat TM/ETM+ 1990, 2000, 2010. The data were visually interpreted, which included checking and editing by comparing the original image with Google Earth images when the area was greater than 0.003 square kilometres. The data were applied to glacial lake changes and glacial lake outburst flood assessments in the Third Pole region. Data type: Vector data. Projected Coordinate System: Albers Conical Equal Area.


Glacier velocity of the Central Karakoram (Version 1.0) (1999-2003)

Under the background of global warming, mountain glaciers worldwide are facing strong ablation and retreat, but from existing field observations, it is found that most of the glaciers in the Karakorum region remain stable or are advancing, which is called the "Karakorum anomaly". Glacier surface velocity is an important parameter for studying glacier dynamics and mass balance. Studying the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of glacier velocity in central Karakorum is significant for understanding the dynamic characteristics of the glacier in this region and its response to climate change. Four pairs of Landsat 7 ETM+ images acquired in 1999 to 2003 (images acquired on 1999.7.16, 2000.6.16, 2001.7.21, 2002.8.9, 2002.4.19, 2003.3.21) were selected; using the panchromatic band with a resolution of 15 m, each pair of images was accurately registered, and then cross-correlation calculations were then performed on each image pair after registration to obtain the surface velocity of the glacier in the central Karakorum region from 1999 to 2003. Due to the lack of velocity observation data in the study area, the accuracy of the ice flow results is estimated using the offset value of the stable region, and the surface velocity error of the glacier is approximately ±7 m/year. The glacier velocity data dates are from 1999 to 2003, with a temporal resolution of one year. They cover the central Karakorum region, with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The data are stored as a GeoTIFF file every year. For details regarding the data, please refer to the data description.


Ice elevation changes for typical glaciers on the QTP V1.0 (2000-2013)

The continuous advancement of SAR interferometry technology makes it possible to obtain multitemporal DEMs with high precision in the glacial area. In particular, in 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) led by NASA provided DEM data covering the area from 56ºS to 60ºN; the TanDEM-X bistatic SAR interferometry system of DLR could provide the global DEM data with high resolution and precision. These high-quality, large-coverage SAR interferometry data, as well as published DEM data products, provided valuable information for using the multitemporal DEMs to detect changes in ice thickness. The temporal coverage of the ice thickness variation data of typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau was from 2000 to 2013, covering Puruogangri and the west Qilian Mountains with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. Using TanDEM-X bistatic InSAR data and a C-band SRTM DEM, the differential radar interferometry method was first used to generate a TanDEM-X DEM with high precision. Then, based on the precise registration of DEM, the DEM data obtained in different periods were compared. Lastly, the ice thickness changes were estimated. The format of the data set was GeoTIFF, and each typical glacier ice thickness change was stored in a folder. For details of the data, please refer to the Ice elevation changes for typical glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau - Data Description.


Bacteria strain resource database of the Tibetan Plateau (version 1.0) (2010-2018)

The glacial bacterial resource database of the Tibetan Plateau provides the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of several glaciers, which are seven glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau separated by an experimental group led by Yongqin Liu during 2010 to 2018 (East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt. Qomolangma, Tianshan Glacier No.1, Guliya Glacier, Laohugou Glacier, Muztagh Ata Glacier, Qiyi Glacier and Yuzhufeng Glacier), the Malan Glacier separated by Shurong Xiang and the Puruogangri Glacier separated by Xinfang Zhang. After the glacier samples were collected, they were taken to the Ecological Laboratory of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and the National Cryosphere Laboratory in Lanzhou. After applying the spread plate method, the samples were cultured at different temperatures (4-25 °C) for 20 days to 90 days, and single colonies were picked out for purification. After the DNA was extracted from the isolated bacteria, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment was amplified with 27F/1492R primer and sequenced using the Sanger method. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence was compared with the RDP database using the "Classifier" software and identified as level one when the reliability exceeded 80%. These data contain the 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment sequence and glacier sources of each sequence. Compared with sequences based on high-throughput sequencing, these data have a longer sequence and more accurate classification and can better serve in glacier microbiology research.