The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is a sensitive region of global climate change. Land surface temperature (LST), as the main parameter of land surface energy balance, characterizes the degree of energy and water exchange between land and atmosphere, and is widely used in the research of meteorology, climate, hydrology, ecology and other fields. In order to study the land atmosphere interaction over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, it is urgent to develop an all-weather land surface temperature data set with long time series and high spatial-temporal resolution. However, due to the frequent cloud coverage in this region, the use of existing satellite thermal infrared remote sensing land surface temperature data sets is greatly limited. Compared with the daily 1 km spatial resolution all-weather land surface temperature data set (2003-2018) V1 in Western China released in 2019, this data set (V2) adopts a new generation method, namely satellite thermal infrared remote sensing reanalysis data integration method (RTM) based on the new land surface temperature time decomposition model. The main input data of the method are Aqua MODIS LST products and GLDAS data, and the auxiliary data include vegetation index and surface albedo provided by satellite remote sensing. This method makes full use of the high frequency and low frequency components of land surface temperature and the spatial correlation of land surface temperature provided by satellite thermal infrared remote sensing and reanalysis data. The evaluation results show that the land surface temperature data set has good image quality and accuracy, which is not only completely seamless in space, but also highly consistent with MODIS LST products widely used in the current academic circles in amplitude and spatial distribution. When MODIS LST was used as the reference value, the mean deviation (MBE) of the data set in daytime and nighttime was -0.28 K and -0.29 K respectively, and the standard deviation (STD) of the deviation was 1.25 K and 1.36 K respectively. The test results based on the measured data of six stations in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Heihe River Basin show that under clear sky conditions, the data set is highly consistent with the measured LST during the day / night, with R2 of 0.93 ~ 0.97 / 0.93 ~ 0.98; MBE of -0.42 ~ 0.25 K / - 0.35 ~ 0.19 K; RMSE of 1.03 ~ 2.28 K / 1.05 ~ 2.05 K; under non clear sky conditions, the MBE of the data set during the day / night is -0.55 ~ 1.42 K / - 0.46 ~ 1.27 K. The RMSE was 2.24-3.87 K / 2.03-3.62 K. Compared with the V1 version of the data, the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature show the characteristics of seamless (i.e. no missing value) in the spatial dimension, and in most areas, the spatial distribution and amplitude of the two kinds of all-weather land surface temperature are highly consistent with MODIS land surface temperature. However, in the region where the brightness temperature of AMSR-E orbital gap is missing, the V1 version of land surface temperature has a significant systematic underestimation. The mass of trims land surface temperature is close to that of V1 version outside AMSR-E orbital gap, while the mass of trims is more reliable inside the orbital gap. Therefore, it is recommended that users use V2 version. The time span of this data set is from 2000 to 2019, and it will be updated continuously; the temporal resolution is twice daily (corresponding to the two transit times of aqua MODIS in the day and night respectively); the spatial resolution is 1 km. In order to facilitate the majority of colleagues to carry out targeted research around the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, and reduce the workload of data download and processing, the coverage of this dataset is limited to Western China and its surrounding areas (72 ° e-104 ° e, 20 ° n-45 ° n) with the Qinghai Tibet Plateau as the core. Therefore, this dataset is abbreviated as trims lst-tp (thermal and reality integrating medium resolution spatial seam LST – Tibetan Plateau) for user's convenience.
ZHANG Xiaodong, ZHOU Ji, TANG Wenbin, DING Lirong, MA Jin
The Tibetan Plateau is known as “The World’s Third Pole” and “The Water Tower of Asia”. A relatively accurate map of the frozen soil in the Tibetan Plateau is therefore significant for local cold region engineering and environmental construction. Thus, to meet the engineering and environmental needs, a decision tree was established based on multi-source remote sensing data (elevation, MODIS surface temperature, vegetation index and soil moisture) to divide the permafrost and seasonally frozen soil of the Tibetan Plateau. The data are in grid format, DN=1 stands for permafrost, and DN=2 stands for seasonally frozen soil. The elevation data are from the 1 km x 1 km China DEM (digital elevation model) data set (http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn); the surface temperature is the yearly average data based on daily data estimated by Bin Ouyang and others using the Sin-Linear method. The estimation of the daily average surface temperature was based on the application of the Sin-Linear method to MODIS surface products, and to reduce the time difference with existing frozen soil maps, the surface temperature of the study area in 2003 was used as the information source for the classification of frozen soil. Vegetation information was extracted from the 16-day synthetic product data of Aqua and Terra (MYD13A1 and MOD13A1) in 2003. Soil moisture values were obtained from relatively high-quality ascending pass data collected by AMSR-E in May 2003. Therefore, based on the above data, the classification threshold of the decision tree was obtained using the Map of Frozen Soil in the Tibetan Plateau (1:3000000) and Map of the Glaciers, Frozen Soil and Deserts in China (1:4000000) as the a priori information. Based on the prosed method, the frozen soil types on the Tibetan Plateau were classified. The classification results were then verified and compared with the surveyed maps of frozen soil in the West Kunlun Mountains, revised maps, maps of hot springs and other existing frozen soil maps related to the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the Tibetan Plateau frozen soil map generated from the multi-source remote sensing information, the permafrost area accounts for 42.5% (111.3 × 104 km²), and the seasonally frozen soil area accounts for 53.8% (140.9 × 104 km²) of the total area of the Tibetan Plateau. This result is relatively consistent with the prior map (the 1:3000000 Map of Frozen Soil in the Tibetan Plateau). In addition, the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the different frozen soil maps show that the frozen soil maps compiled or simulated by different methods are basically consistent in terms of the spatial distribution pattern, and the inconsistencies are mainly in the boundary areas between permafrost areas and seasonally frozen soil areas.
NIU Fujun, YIN Guoan
This data is a simulated output data set of 5km monthly hydrological data obtained by establishing the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, using temperature, precipitation and pressure as input data, and GAME-TIBET data as verification data. The dataset includes grid runoff and evaporation (if the evaporation is less than 0, it means deposition; if the runoff is less than 0, it means that the precipitation in the month is less than evaporation). This data is a model based on the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model, and established by using temperature, and precipitation (from itp-forcing and CMA) as input data, GLASS, MODIA, AVHRR as vegetation data, and SOILGRID and FAO as soil parameters. And by the calibration and verification of runoff，soil temperature and soil humidity, the 5 km monthly grid runoff and evaporation in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River from 1998 to 2017 was obtained. If asc can't open normally in arcmap, please delete the blacks space of the top 5 lines of the asc file.
Lake ice is an important parameter of the cryosphere, its change is closely related to the climate parameters such as temperature and precipitation, and can directly reflect the climate change, so it is an important indicator of the regional climate parameter change. However, because the research area is often located in the area with poor natural environment and few population, large-scale field observation is difficult to carry out, so sentinel 1 satellite data is used. The spatial resolution of 10 m and the temporal resolution of better than 30 days are used to monitor the changes of different types of lake ice, which fills the observation gap. Hmrf algorithm is used to classify different types of lake ice. Through time series analysis of the distribution of different types of lake ice in three polar regions with a part area of more than 25km2, a lake ice type data set is formed. The distribution of different types of lake ice in these lakes can be obtained. The data includes the serial number of the processed lake, the year in which it is located and the serial number in the time series, vector and other information. The data set includes the algorithm used, sentinel-1 satellite data used, imaging time, polar area, lake ice type and other information. Users can determine the changes of different types of lake ice in the time series according to the vector file.
Qiu Yubao, Tian Bangsen
This product is based on multi-source remote sensing DEM data generation. The steps are as follows: select control points in relatively stable and flat terrain area with Landsat ETM +, SRTM and ICESat remote sensing data as reference. The horizontal coordinates of the control points are obtained with Landsat ETM + l1t panchromatic image as the horizontal reference. The height coordinates of the control points are mainly obtained by ICESat gla14 elevation data, and are supplemented by SRTM elevation data in areas without ICESat distribution. Using the selected control points and automatically generated connection points, the lens distortion and residual deformation are compensated by Brown's physical model, so that the total RMSE of all stereo image pairs in the aerial triangulation results is less than 1 pixel. In order to edit the extracted DEM data to eliminate the obvious elevation abnormal value, DEM Interpolation, DEM filtering and DEM smoothing are used to edit the DEM on the glacier, and kh-9 DEM data in the West Kunlun West and West Kunlun east regions are spliced to form products.
Glaciers are very sensitive to regional and global climate change, so they are often regarded as one of the indicators of climate change, and their relevant parameters are also the key indicators of climate change research. Especially in the comparative study of the three polar environmental changes on the earth, the time and space difference ratio of glacial speed is one of the focuses of climate change research. However, because glaciers are basically located in high altitude, high latitude and high cold areas, the natural environment is poor, and people are rarely seen, and it is difficult to carry out the conventional field measurement of large-scale glacial movement. In order to understand the glacial movement in the three polar areas in a timely, efficient, comprehensive and accurate manner, radar interferometry, radar and optical image pixel tracking are used to obtain the three polar areas. The distribution of surface movement of some typical glaciers in some years from 2000 to 2017 provides basic data for the comparative analysis of the movement of the three polar glaciers. The dataset contains 12 grid files named "glacier movement in a certain period of time in a certain region". Each grid map mainly contains the regional velocity distribution of a typical glacier.
The strong spatial and temporal changes of precipitation often make it impossible to accurately know the spatial distribution and intensity changes of precipitation during the precipitation observation of conventional foundation stations. Satellite microwave remote sensing can overcome this limitation and achieve global scale precipitation and cloud observation. Compared with infrared/visible light, which can only reflect cloud thickness and cloud height, microwave can penetrate the cloud, and also use the interaction between precipitation and cloud particles in the cloud and microwave to detect the cloud and rain more directly. This data use the surface precipitation, obtained by the DPR double wave band precipitation radar carried by GPM, as the true value, soil temperature/humidity of NDVI, DEM and ERA5 as reference data. And the multi-band passive brightness temperature data of GMI is used to invert the instantaneous precipitation intensity during the warm season (May-September) in Tibetan Plateau, then the result is re-sampled to the spatial resolution of 0.1°and accumulated them to a day.
The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2013 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. 128 Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were selected with 30-m spatial resolution, for comparability with previous and current glacier inventories. Besides, about 20 images acquired in 2014 were used to complete the full coverage of the TP. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 2013. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2013 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. [To minimize the effects of snow or cloud cover on glacierized areas, high-resolution (30 m spatial resolution and 4-day repetition cycle) images were also used for reference in glacier delineation from the Chinese satellites HJ-1A and HJ-1B, which were launched on Sep.6th 2008. Both carried as payload two 4-band CCD cameras with swath width 700 km (360 km per camera). All HJ-1A/1B data in 2012, 2013 and 2014 (65 scenes, Fig.S1, Table S1) were from China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA; http://www.cresda.com/n16/n92006/n92066/n98627/index.html). Each scene was orthorectified with respect to the 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Landsat images.] The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. Topographic maps from the 1970s and all available satellite images (including Google EarthTM imagery and HJ-1A/1B satellite data) were used as base reference data. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2013. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2013 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data -TPG1976 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau in the 1970s. It was generated by manual interpretation from Landsat MSS multispectral image data. The temporal coverage was mainly from 1972 to 1979 by 60 m spatial resolution. It involved 205 scenes of Landsat MSS/TM. There were 189 scenes（92% coverage on TP）in 1972-79，including 116 scenes in 1976/77 (61% of all the collected satellite data).As high quality of MSS data is not accessible due to cloud and snow effects in the South-east Tibetan Plateau, earlier Landsat TM data was collected for usage, including 14 scenes of 1980s（1981,1986-89,which covers 6.5% of TP） and 2 scenes in 1994（by 1.5% coverage on TP）.Among all satellite data，77% was collected in winter with the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow. The most frequent year in this period was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image: i.e. 1976. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 1976 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (MSS: red, green and blue (RGB) represented by bands 321; TM: RGB by bands 543), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG1976. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG1976 if they were identifiable on images in all three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 6.4% due to the 60 m spatial resolution images.
YE Qinghua, WU Yuwei
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 1979 to 2018. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong, ZHOU Ji, WANG Wei
The Tibetan Plateau Glacier Data –TPG2017 is a glacial coverage data on the Tibetan Plateau from selected 210 scenes of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images with 30-m spatial resolution from 2013 to 2018, among of which 90% was in 2017 and 85% in winter. Therefore, 2017 was defined as the reference year for the mosaic image. Glacier outlines were digitized on-screen manually from the 2017 image mosaic, relying on false-colour image composites (RGB by bands 654), which allowed us to distinguish ice/snow from cloud. Debris-free ice was distinguished from the debris and debris-covered ice by its higher reflectance. Debris-covered ice was not delineated in this data. The delineated glacier outlines were compared with band-ratio (e.g. TM3/TM5) results, and validated by overlapping them onto Google Earth imagery, SRTM DEM, topographic maps and corresponding satellite images. For areas with mountain shadows and snow cover, they were verified by different methods using data from different seasons. For glaciers in deep shadow, Google EarthTM imagery from different dates was used as the reference for manual delineation. Steep slopes or headwalls were also excluded in the TPG2017. Areas that appeared in any of these sources to have the characteristics of exposed ground/basement/bed rock were manually delineated as non-glacier, and were also cross-checked with CGI-1 and CGI-2. Steep hanging glaciers were included in TPG2017 if they were identifiable on images in all other three epochs (i.e. TPG1976, TPG2001, and TPG2013). The accuracy of manual digitization was controlled within one half-pixel. All glacier areas were calculated on the WGS84 spheroid in an Albers equal-area map projection centred at (95°E, 30°N) with standard parallels at 15°N and 65°N. Our results showed that the relative deviation of manual interpretation was less than 3.9%.
The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of over 4000 m and is the region with the highest altitude and the largest snow cover in the middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere regions. Snow cover is the most important underlying surface of the seasonal changes on the Tibetan Plateau and an important composing element of ecological environment. Ice and snow melt water is an important water resource of the plateau and its downstream areas. At the same time, plateau snow, as an important land-surface forcing factor, is closely related to disastrous weather (such as droughts and floods) in East Asia, the South Asian monsoon and in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is an important indicator of short-term climate prediction and one of the most sensitive responses to global climate change. The snow depth refers to the vertical depth from the surface of the snow to the ground. It is an important parameter for snow characteristics and one of the conventional meteorological observation elements. It is the key parameter of snow water equivalent estimation, climate effect studies of snow cover, the basin water balance, the simulation and monitoring of snow-melt, and snow disaster evaluation and grading. In this data set, the Tibetan Plateau boundary was determined by adopting the natural topography as the leading factor and by comprehensive consideration of the principles of altitude, plateau and mountain integrity. The main part of the plateau is in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, with an area of 2.572 million square kilometers, accounting for 26.8% of the total land area of China. The snow depth observation data are the monthly maximum snow depth data after quality detection and quality control. There are 102 meteorological stations in the study area, most of which were built during the 1950s to 1970s. The data for some months or years for sites existing during this period were missing, and the complete observational records from 1961 to 2013 were adopted. The temporal resolution is daily, the spatial coverage is the Tibetan Plateau, and all the data were quality controlled. Accurate and detailed plateau snow depth data are of great significance for the diagnosis of climate change, the evolution of the Asian monsoon and the management of regional snow-melt water resources.
National Meteorological Information Center, Tibet Meteorological Bureau, China
A comprehensive understanding of the permafrost changes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including the changes of annual mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT), is of great significance to the implementation of the permafrost change project caused by climate change. Based on the CMFD reanalysis data from 2000 to 2015, meteorological observation data of China Meteorological Administration, 1 km digital elevation model, geo spatial environment prediction factors, glacier and ice lake data, drilling data and so on, this paper uses statistics and machine learning (ML) method to simulate the current changes of permafrost flux and magnetic flux in Qinghai Tibet Plateau The range data of mean ground temperature (Magt) and active layer thickness (ALT) from 2000 to 2015 and 2061 to 2080 under rcp2.6, rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 concentration scenarios were obtained, with the resolution of 0.1 * 0.1 degree. The simulation results show that the combination of statistics and ML method needs less parameters and input variables to simulate the thermal state of frozen soil, which can effectively understand the response of frozen soil on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to climate change.
Ni Jie, WU Tonghua WU Tonghua WU Tonghua
River lake ice phenology is sensitive to climate change and is an important indicator of climate change. 308 excel file names correspond to Lake numbers. Each excel file contains six columns, including daily ice coverage information of corresponding lakes from July 2002 to June 2018. The attributes of each column are: date, lake water coverage, lake water ice coverage, cloud coverage, lake water coverage and lake ice coverage after cloud treatment. Generally, the ice cover area ratio of 0.1 and 0.9 is used as the basis to distinguish the lake ice phenology. The excel file contained in the data set can further obtain four lake ice phenological parameters: Fus, fue, bus, bue, and 92 lakes. Two parameters, Fus and bue, can be obtained.
This data includes the soil microbial composition data in permafrost of different ages in Barrow area of the Arctic. It can be used to explore the response of soil microorganisms to the thawing in permafrost of different ages. This data is generated by high through-put sequencing using the earth microbiome project primers are 515f – 806r. The region amplified is the V4 hypervariable region, and the sequencing platform is Illumina hiseq PE250; This data is used in the articles published in cryosphere, Permafrost thawing exhibits a greater influence on bacterial richness and community structure than permafrost age in Arctic permafrost soils. The Cryosphere, 2020, 14, 3907–3916, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3907-2020 . This data can also be used for the comparative analysis of soil microorganisms across the three poles.
Near surface atmospheric forcing data were produced by using Wether Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Heihe River Basin at hourly 0.05 * 0.05 DEG resolution, including the following variables: 2m temperature, surface pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, downward shortwave & upward longwave radiation, 10m wind field and the accumulated precipitation. The forcing data were validated by observational data collected by 15 daily Chinese Meteorological Bureau conventional automatic weather station (CMA), a few of Heihe River eco-hydrological process comprehensive remote sensing observation (WATER and HiWATER) site hourly observations were verified in different time scales, draws the following conclusion: 2m surface temperature, surface pressure and 2m relative humidity are more reliable, especially 2m surface temperature and surface pressure, the average errors are very small and the correlation coefficients are above 0.96; correlation between downward shortwave radiation and WATER site observation data is more than 0.9; The precipitation agreed well with observational data by being verified based on rain and snow precipitation two phases at yearly, monthly, daily time scales . the correlation coefficient between rainfall and the observation data at monthly and yearly time scales were up to 0.94 and 0.84; the correlation between snowfall and observation data at monthly scale reached 0.78, the spatial distribution of snowfall agreed well with the snow fractional coverage rate of MODIS remote sensing product. Verification of liquid and solid precipitation shows that WRF model can be used for downscaling analysis in complex and arid terrain of Heihe River Basin, and the simulated data can meet the requirements of watershed scale hydrological modeling and water resources balance. The data for 2000-2012 was provided in 2013. The data for 2013-2015 was updated in 2016. The data for 2016-2018 was updated in 2019.
1. Data overview Take Ganzhou District, Linze County and Gaotai County of Zhangye City in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin as the research area, and carry out input-output survey on agricultural, industrial and service enterprises and individuals in the research area from May to November 2013. According to the survey data, use the survey method to compile the input-output table of 42 departments in 2012 in this area. 2. The data content Data mainly reflects the input-output of various national economic industries in the process of production, circulation and consumption in ganlingao region in 2012.
Based on the data of downscaling results in the precipitation historical period of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5), the combined Method of geographical weighted regression and HASM (High Accuracy Surface Modeling Method) was used to analyze the annual mean precipitation in the future three periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 in the scenario of rcp2.6, rcp4.5 and rcp8.5. Through downscaling simulation and prediction, the 1km downscaling results of the multi-year average precipitation in the three periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 are obtained.
YUE Tianxiang, ZHAO Na
Snow pits were observed daily at Altay base station（lon：88.07、lat: 44.73） from November 27, 2015 to March 26, 2016. Parameters include: snow stratification, stratification thickness, density, particle size, temperature. The frequency of observation was daily. The particle size was observed by a microscope with camera, the density was observed by snowfork, snow shovel and Snow Cone, and the temperature was automatically observed by temperature sensor. The observation time was 8:00-10:100 am local time. The snow particle size is observed according to the natural stratification of snow. The snow particles of each layer are collected, and at least 2 photos are taken. The long axis and short axis of at least 10 groups of particles are measured by corresponding software. Unit: mm. The density was observed at equal intervals, snowfork every 5 cm, snow shovel every 10 cm, snow cone to observe the density of the whole snow layer, and the density of each layer was observed three times. The unit is g / cm3. The height of temperature observation is 0cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 25cm, 35cm, 45cm, 55cm. The recording frequency was once every 1 minute. The unit is OC.
Soluble organic carbon (DOC) in snow and ice can effectively absorb the solar radiation in the ultraviolet and near ultraviolet band, which is also one of the important factors leading to the enhancement of snow and ice ablation. Through the continuous snow samples from November 2016 to April 2017 in Altay area, the data of DOC, TN and BC of snow in kuwei station in Altay area were obtained through the experimental analysis and test with the instrument. The time resolution was weeks and the ablation period was daily. 1. Unit: Doc and TN unit μ g-1 (PPM), BC unit ng g-1 (ppb), MAC unit M2 g-1