The Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and its neighbouring areas are crucial for the research of the evolution of Neo-Tethys. The earliest evidence of the formation of Neo-Tethys remains to be discovered and the sequence of the basin evolution in many areas, such as the eastern and western Xizang, is far from well established. The limits in stratigraphy and sedimentology have greatly restricted the investigation of the evolution of Neo-Tethys as well as the collision between Indian-Eurasian plates. This exploration team conducted a joint investigation on the Mesozoic strata in some key areas in eastern, central, and southern Xizang, with emphasis on their stratigraphy, palaeontology, and sedimentology, to retrieve potential stratigraphic and sedimentary evidence of the opening, evolution, and retreat of the Neo-Tethys in the region. This dataset is a collection of the exploration, which includes diaries and photos of the strata, geological structure, profiles, and fossils that have been collected in the above-mentioned areas. It consists of three items. The explored strata include the Jurassic-Cretaceous in Luolong and Basu counties, eastern Xizang, in Renbu and Lang counties, central Xizang, and the radiolarite strata in Ngari.
LI Jianguo LUO Hui LI Xianghui
With a depositional history spanning the early Aptian to early Albian (~19 mys), the Lower Cretaceous Xinminpu Group in Jiuquan, NW China provides abundant animal and plant fossils. This area is the represented study area of the Lower Cretaceous in China. The absence of a comprehensive stratigraphical framework for this area however limits the degree to which the unit can be interpreted relative to coeval sections and the geological records in genera. This investigation from July 9 to July 11 focuses on the Lower Cretaceous in this area, and collected abundant fossil and rock samples for biostratigraphic and stratigraphic analysis. This dataset includes: stratigraphic column of the Chijinpu Formation in the East Xiagou outcrop, and photographs of outcrops and represented fossils; stratigraphic column of the Xiagou Formation in the Changma outcrop and a photo of bird-bearing outcrop.
The Sixth Zhabuye Section locates at the northern part of the Zhabuye salt lake in Zhongba County, Tibet. The Middle Permian carbonates of the Xiala Formation outcropped very well in the region. This section has a thickness of 200 meters and was divided into 6 units. The lower 50 meters of the section is composed of limestones and chert layers. The chert layers in the above 100 meters decreased significantly, but they reappear in the top 35 meters. This section has abundant fusulines and smaller foraminifers. The fusulines has two assemblages, respectively Neoschwagerina majulensis-Kahlerina pachytheca assemblage in the lower and Chusenella quasifera-Codonofusiella nana assemblage in the upper. The foraminifers are divided into three assemblages, respectively Glomomidiellopsis specialisaeformis-Pachyphloia multiseptata assemblage, Lysites biconcavus-Shanita amosi assemblage and Lasiodiscus tenuis-Neoendothyra reicheli assemblage.
The Xiadong section locates at the Xiadong village region in Tsochen County, Tibet. The Permian strata in this region includes Largar, Angjie and Xiala formations. The Xiadong Section locates at the north of the Xiadong Village. The section is composed of entirely carbonates with abundant fusulines, smaller foraminifers and corals. The column exhibit the occurrences of fusulines and smaller foraminifers and their biostratigraphy. According to the fusulines, the age of the Xiala Formation at this section is middle Permian age. The fusulines can be subdivided into two assemblages, respectively Chenella changanchiaoensis-Neoschwagerina cheni in the lower and Nankinella-Chusenella assemblage in the upper. The foraminifers are divided into four assemblages, respectively Lasiodiscus tenuis-Palaeotextularia angusta elongata assemblage, Agathammina pusilla-A.vachardi assemblage, Hemigordiopsis-Midiella assemblage and Pachyphloi-Nodosinelloides assemblage.
The Mujiucuo section locates at the west of the Mujiucuo salt lake in Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian sequences oupcropped very well at the section. The Permian sequence at the section was divided into five formations, respectively Yunzhub, Largar, Angjie, Xiala and Mujiucuo formations. The Yunzhub Formation is composed of sandstone. The upper part of this formation contains limestone interlayers with 8 species of brachiopods. The brachiopods are grouped into the Costatumulus-Bandoproductus assemblage. The Xiala Formation is composed of entirely carbonates. The purplish limestone in the base of Xiala Formation consists of 6 species of brachiopods. They are grouped into the Alispiriferella-Retimarginifera celeteria assemblage. The overlying bed only contains one species Permophricodothyris elegantula. The brachiopods from these beds overall show a Gondwanan type in palaeobiogeography. It suggests that the Lhasa Block located not far away from the Gondwana margin. According to the constraints by fusulines and conodonts, the ages of beds 83, 86 and 87 are Middle Permian whereas those of beds 88 and 89 are late Permian. Brachiopods are found in many beds in the Xiala Formation. They are divided into two separate assemblages, respectively Echinauris opuntia-Neoplicatifera in the lower and Spinomarginifera lopingensis-Chonetinella cymatilis in the upper. Compared with the brachiopods from the Yunzhub Formation and basal Xiala Formation below, both assemblages from the middle and upper part of the Xiala Formation exhibit a pronounced palaeobiogeographical changes.
XU Haipeng ZHANG Yichun
The Mujiucuo section locates at the west of the Mujiucuo salt lake in Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian sequences oupcropped very well at the section. The beds from 83 to 89 consists mainly of bioclastic limestone with abundant fusulines and foraminifers. After careful examination, 13 species of fusulines and 37 species of smaller foraminifers are identified at the section. In terms of the occurrences of those fusulines and smaller foraminifers, the fusulines are subdivided into the lower Nankinella-Chusenella assemblage of Middle Permian and upper Codonofusiella schubertelloides zone of Late Permian. Similarly, the smaller foraminifers are also divided into lower Agathammina vachardi-Hemigordiopsis subglobosa assemblage and upper Glomomidiellopsis xainzaensis-Midiella reicheli assemblage. The dominance of Miliolinids in the section suggests an overall warm-water depositional settings.
25 members consisting of researchers from Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS and Nanjing University, reporters from Beijing News, technicians from China Unicom, drivers and kitchener undertook the investigation on the Palaeozoic strata and faunas from various regions in northern Tibet from 30 August to 3 October. The expedition areas include areas in northern Selingco, Rejuechaka and Rongma region in northern Nyima County, Wenbu area in southern Nyima County. The objective of the expedition includes: (1) the origin of the Permian limestone blocks within the Bangong-Nujiang suture zones; (2) the Permian-Triassic strata, faunas and floras in the Rejuechaka region, northern Tibet; (3) the Ordovician cephalopods in the Rongma area, Nyima County; (4) the Permian sequence and faunas in the Wenbu area, southern Nyima County. This album contains the full record of the investigation and geological phenomenon. The links in the album can directly link to the video in internet.
25 members consisting of researchers from Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS and Nanjing University, reporters from Beijing News, technicians from China Unicom, drivers and kitchener undertook the investigation on the Palaeozoic strata and faunas from various regions in northern Tibet from 5 September to 2 October. The expedition areas include areas in northern Selingco, Rejuechaka and Rongma region in northern Nyima County, Wenbu area in southern Nyima County. In northern Selingco region, the expedition focused on the faunas from the exotic limestone blocks within the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. In the Rejuechaka region, the expedition attention was paid on the Permian-Triassic successions, sea-level changes, and Permian and Triassic faunas and floras. In the Rongma area, the Ordovician cephalopod and Permian microfossils within the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture zone was investigated. In the Wenbu area, the research attention was paid on the stratigraphic transition from the ice-houce to green-house conditions during the early Permian time. This document record the full information about the field investigation.
The dataset contains the identification lists of fusulines, smaller foraminifers, brachiopods and conodonts from three sections at the Mujiucuo area, Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian strata has very good outcrops at the Mujiucuo region. The Permian strata is composed of the Yunzhub, Largar, Angjie, Xiala and Mujiucuo formations in ascending order. The Yunzhub Formation contains only abundant brachiopods, they show a typical Gondwanan cool-water type. The middle part of the Xiala Formation is composed of medium-bedded limestone with abundant foraminifers, fusulines and brachiopods. The upper part of the Xiala Formation contains abundant conodonts, smaller foraminifers and fusulines. According to the ages of the fossils, the limestone from the northwest Mujiucuo section corresponds to the bed 86 of the Mujiucuo section. The limestones from the short western Mujiucuo section corresponds to bed 89 of the Mujiucuo section. The limestone and dolomites from the No. 2 short section comes from the lower part of the Mujiucuo Formation.
The study of fossils in Bangor and Lunpola is of great significance, and the date of fossils is indispensable. There are volcanic tuffs in this area. Zircon can be used for U-Pb age analysis to determine the age of strata and fossils. This data shows the zircon U-Pb age analysis results of tuff samples from bango and Lunpola fossil sites in a graphical way. The figure shows the shape of a large number of zircons, and indicates the age analysis results on different zircon samples. The data show the large sample size used in related research, and the analysis results are also clear. The image display of this data is intuitive and clear, and the results are reliable, which is of great significance to the study of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This dataset is derived from the paper: Su, T. et al. (2019). No high tibetan plateau until the Neogene. Science Advances, 5(3), eaav2189. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2189 This data contains supplementary material of this article. Researchers discovered well-preserved palm fossil leaves from the Lunpola Basin (32.033°N, 89.767°E), central Tibetan Plateau at a present elevation of 4655 m in 2016. Researchers compared the newly discovered fossil with those present fossil that are most similar, find that there is no similar leaves among present fossil, therefore, researchers proposed the new species <em>S. tibetensis</em> T. Su et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. Using the climate model, combined with the research of the fossil, researchers rebuilt the paleoelevation of the central Tibetan Plateau, it shows that a high plateau cannot have existed in the core of Tibet in the Paleogene. The data contains the following tables: 1) Table S1. Fossil records of palms around the world. 2) Table S2. Morphological comparisons between fossils from Lunpola Basin and modern palm genera. 3) Table S3. Climate ranges of 12 living genera that show the closest morphological similarity to <em>S. tibetensis</em> T. Su et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. This dataset also contains the figures in the supplementary material in the article.
This data was illustarted section histogram of Baingoin locality, based on result of geological survey on Tibetan Plateau in recent years. The thickness of stratigraphic level was measured artificially, rock character was identified by well-experienced geological worker. Fossils were discovered and clearly marked in the section. Stratigraphic and lithologic data obtained from geological survey was organized systematically after field work, adding relevant text. The content of data is very detailed, with significance in geological and topographic research in Baingoin locality and Northern Tibetan Plateau, especially in tectonics in plateau uplift and paleo-altimetry.
This data is derived from the Supplementary Tables of the paper: Chen, F. H., Welker, F., Shen, C. C., Bailey, S. E., Bergmann, I., Davis, S., Xia, H., Wang, H., Fischer, R., Freidline, S. E., Yu, T. L., Skinner, M. M., Stelzer, S., Dong, G. R., Fu, Q. M., Dong, G. H., Wang, J., Zhang, D. J., & Hublin, J. J. (2019). A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. Nature, 569, 409-412. This research is another breakthrough made by academician Fahu Chen and his team over the years research of human activities and environmental adaptation on the Tibetan Plateau. The research team analyzed the newly discovered hominid mandible fossils in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, and identified it belongs to Denisovan of the Tibetan Plateau, which suggested to call Xiahe Denisovan. The team conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the fossil, including chronology, physique morphology, molecular archaeology, living environment and human adaptation. It is the first Denisovan fossil found outside the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains and the earliest evidence of human activity on the Tibetan Plateau (160 kyr BP). This study provides key evidence for further study of Denisovans' physical characteristics and distribution in East Asia, it also provides evidence of a deep evolutionary history of these archaic hominins within the challenging environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This data contains 6 tables, table name and contents are as follows: t1: Distances in mm between meshes generated from CT versus photoscans (PS). t2: Measurements of the Xiahe mandible after reconstruction. t3: Comparative Dental metrics. t4: Comparative crown morphology. t5: Uniprot accession numbers for protein sequences of extant primates used in the phylogenetic analyses. t6: Specimen names and numbers.
The Lunpola Basin in the central Tibetan Plateau is situated along the southern margin of the east-west stretched Banggong-Nujiang suture belt between the Qiangtang Terrane and the Lhasa Terrane. The thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments in the basin can provide great potential for understanding the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. However, the study of geologic and climatic changes has been hindered by poor age constraints on the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in the Lunpola Basin, especially its upper part with typical lacustrine oil shale sediments due to the discontinuous or unexposed outcrop caused by erosion or weathering. In this study, we investigated a 658 m-thick Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori, from the upper sequence of the central basin. We found two layers of tuffs in this section and then carried out detailed paleomagnetic measurements. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages, the observed magnetic zones are well correlated with chrons C5Bn.2n to C6AAn of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale, yielding ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. Lithofacies, pollen and fossil records suggest a relative temperate, humid climate prevailing in the Lunpola Basin during the period of Dingqinghu Formation, indicating that the Indian monsoon occurred before ~26 Ma.Through paleomagnetic analysis and testing of fluvial and lacustrine facies strata in Lumpola Basin since Miocene, 22Ma-15Ma magnetic stratigraphic chronology has been obtained.