1) Data content: Paleomagnetic data, magnetic index data, major element percentage data and chemical weathering index can establish the paleomagnetic age framework of the Dahonggou section and restore the precipitation change and chemical weathering history in geological history. 2) Data sources and processing methods The data source is experimental data. Paleomagnetic data: a cylindrical sample of 2x2x2cm was drilled with a small gasoline drill and measured with a low-temperature superconducting magnetometer in a magnetic shielding room. Magnetic data: the samples collected in the field were ground into fine particles by mortar and put into 2x2x2 non-magnetic plastic box, and tested by kappa bridge susceptibility meter, pulse magnetometer and rotating magnetometer. Mass percentage content and chemical weathering index data of major elements in the whole sample and particle size fraction: firstly, the whole sample and particle size fraction sample were pretreated with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove carbonate and organic matter, and then pressed into a round cake with a diameter of about 4cm and a thickness of about 8mm by a pressure apparatus, and finally XRF fluorescence analysis was carried out. 3) Data quality The sample collection and experimental processing are carried out according to strict standards, and the data quality is reliable. 4) Data application achievements and Prospects Three SCI papers were published using this set of data, one of which is Ni.
The Lunpola Basin distributed in the central part of the Banggong-Nujiang suture belt contains thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which have great potential for increasing our understanding of the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion, and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. In this study, detailed investigations were carried on a Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori (LPR), from the upper sequence of the central basin. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages in the layers of tuffs and mammalian fossils of a rhinocerotid humerus, paleomagnetic methods yield ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. In addition, we further select some parameters (e.g., magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)) to establish a high-resolution magnetic record to explore the paleoclimate change. The magnetic susceptibility is measured by Kappabridge while the SIRM is measured by Mini spin and Impulse Magnetizer. The results suggest that magnetic susceptibility (χ) gradually increases during the period of semi-deep to the deep lake but shows a decrease in the stage of the shallow lake. Combining with the maximum values of χ often appearing in the layer of sandstones and no obvious correlation between the χ and SIRM, we preliminarily considered that the supply of detritus may dominate the variation of the χ. Lithofacies, pollen, and fossil records suggest that a relatively temperate, humid climate prevailed in the Lunpola Basin during the sedimentary period of the Dingqinghu Fm.
This data set is composed of two sedimentary profiles of Huangyang river a (altitude: 2447 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E) and B (altitude: 2454 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E). Both of them are located in the hilly area at the northern foot of Qilian Mountain, 1km apart. The annual precipitation here is about 500mm, and the annual average temperature is about 2 ℃. The interval between the two slices was 2 cm, and 160 samples were obtained from each slice to analyze the total organic carbon, carbonate content, particle size and other information. The data set is of great significance to the study of paleoclimate / paleoenvironment.
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We have completed the pollen analyses of 252 sedimentary samples from Dahonggou section in Qaidam Basin covering the Cenozoic. Palynomorph extraction followed the routine process with HCl and HF treatments during the extraction. Airborne pollen-charcoal traps and surface-sediment samples from soils were collected to evaluate the relationship between pollen-charcoal contents and vegetation structure, and effect of sedimentary environment conditions on the pollen dispersal and deposition. Combined with pollen-charcoal data from other sections, we are going to establish the fire history spanning the last 30 Ma years, and to discuss the responds and feedbacks of the vegetation and fire to the climate changes. Our work is beneficial to the knowledge of the processes of aridification in Inner Asia and its mechanism. The submitted pollen data set is according to the proposal, and in order to guarantee data accuracy, 20% of the data have been examined in our lab by random sampling method. Data collection and analysis are continued, we hope our work can contribute more to the project in the next few years.
Clay minerals are the weathering products of the parent rocks, which was formed by a series of chemical processes under a specific climate, and they are also widely-used indicators to reconstruct the history of the regional paleochemical weathering process. In this study, we present a detailed mineralogical investigation of 76 clay samples collected from the Lunpori section (21-15 Ma) in the Lunpola Basin by using X-ray diffraction. The results show that illite-smectite mixed layers, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite are the common clay mineral types in this section. The illite-smectite mixed layers and illite are the most abundant ones, which account for 80-90% of the total clay content; while the content of kaolinite and chlorite is relatively low, only occupying ~10-20% of the total clay minerals. The variations of clay mineral content are relatively stable in the Lunpori section, thus indicating that the intensity of regional chemical weathering was less variable during this period.
The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
Data content: Standard ring-width chronology derived from Wilson juniper shrub around the northern shore of the Nam Co Lake; May-June SZI (Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index) drought reconstruction for the Nam Co region. Time span: 1605 to 2010. Temporal resolution: Yearly. Application and prospects: Hydroclimate study on the south-central Tibetan Plateau.
LU Xiaoming HUANG Ru WANG Yafeng ZHANG Baoqing ZHU Haifeng CAMARERO J. Julio LIANG Eryuan*
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau and Hexi corridor, we discovered more than 40 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Zongri, Sanjiaocheng, Huoshiliang, Ganggangwa, Yigediwonan, Shaguoliang, Guandi, Maolinshan, Dongjicuona, Nuomuhong, Qugong, Liding and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant fossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes, polle, fungal sporen and environmental proxies. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui YANG Xiaoyan Lü Hongliang LIU Xiangjun HOU Guangliang
Cenozoic sedimentary strata, which have been extensively developed in the low Himalaya region of western Nepal, provide an opportunity to study the dynamics of plateau uplift and the effects of climate and environment. According to a detailed field explored in the region nearly 10 sections, we found that a typical Cenozoic strata in the area is mainly composed of passive continental margin sedimentary of India's Tansen group and the Himalayas of foreland basin of Siwalik group, thickness of the Tansen group of 2000-3000 m, bottom-up Cenozoic strata, including the Amile group (Amile), and Bhainskati group (Bhainskati), Dumri group (Dumri); The Siwalik group, up to 4000m-6000m, is mainly composed of the lower, middle and upper west Siwalik. Cenozoic strata in Butwal section (309 m, including Amile and upper Bhainskati formation), Tulsipur section (357 m, including the top of Amile group and Bhainskati group formation) and Kalyan section (1161 m, including upper Bhainskati group formation and Dumri formation) are well exposed. High precise (with 1 m spacing) paleomagnetic chronology and environmental proxies samples collected in those three sections. By giving the precise stratigraphic age and paleoenvironmental data, it is of great significance to explore whether the north-south monsoon and drought events on the plateau are coupled and synchronized, and to reveal their relationship with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global change.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
This magnetic susceptibility data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the eastern Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility of the top part of the loess sequence at 5cm intervals, and obtained 200 sets of magnetic susceptibility data. The experimental analysis was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Air-dried and grind the samples were put it into a non-magnetic cubic box, and measured by the British Bartington MS2. The result indicates the varations of the low frequency magnetic susceptibility of the Loess sequence since the Last Interglacial at Ganzi area, which is of great importance for understanding past environment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
This data set comes from shallow marine carbonate sections at Tingri and Gamba, south Tibet. The age of these samples is about 56 Ma (at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary). At Tingri, we studied two parallel sections (13ZS section and 10-11TM section), and at Gamba, we studied one section (11TMG). From the 13ZS section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and calcium carbonate content of the whole carbonate rock, as well as the in-situ carbon isotopic compositions and element contents of the foraminifera shell. From the 10-11TM section, we analyzed carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions of the whole rock. From the 11TMG section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole carbonate rock. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole rock were measured by gas isotope mass spectrometer (MAT251), strontium isotope by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), calcium carbonate content by acid dissolution, in-situ carbon isotopic compositions by SIMS, and in-situ element contents by LA-ICPMS. Among these data, in-situ carbon isotope data were obtained from the laboratory of Professor John Valley at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the United States, and the rest are from the relevant laboratories of the Department of Geosciences at the University of Bremen in Germany. Based on these data, we published three peer-reviewed papers on Journals of Gondwana Research, GSA Bulletin, and Global and Planetary Change.
The data include the carbonate content, carbon isotope and oxygen isotope analysis results of inorganic carbonates of 79 samples from 850 m natural section of the middle late Eocene in the salkuli basin. The carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate in the sediments record the hydrological and vegetation information in the geological history, which is one of the main indicators of paleoenvironmental tracer research. After grinding and sieving, the carbon and oxygen isotope analysis is completed by the sample processing unit (carbonate device) and MAT252 isotope mass spectrometry online automatic online system. The analytical accuracy of the sample is: carbon isotope is better than ± 0.06 ‰, and oxygen isotope is better than ± 0.08 ‰. Through the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope data of solkuli section, the evolution history of arid environment since Eocene can be reconstructed, and the paleoclimate effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change can be discussed.
This dataset is collected from the Supplementary Materials part of the paper "Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347, 248–250.". In this paper, researchers analyzed animal bones, plant remains and other artefacts from 53 sites across the northeastern Tibetan plateau and found that humans began to relocate to the elevations above 4000 masl after the emergence of Barley. According to the study, the prehistoric human expansion into the higher, colder altitudes of the Tibetan plateau took place as the continental temperatures had themselves become colder after 3,600 calendar years before the present, thus, the key impetus of the expansion was agricultural innovation rather than climate change. This dataset contains 4 tables, table names and content are as follows: Data list: The data name list of the rest tables; t1: Calibrated radiocarbon dates and domesticated plant and animal remains from sites investigated on the NETP; t2: Radiocarbon dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau; t3: OSL dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau. See attachments for data details: Supplementary Materials.pdf, Agriculture Facilitated Permanent Human Occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3,600 BP.pdf.
This data is a standard chronology of the ring width of five species of tamarix chinensis shrub in the lakeside terrace of the east juyan sea, which represents the changes of the lake water level in the east juyan sea in the past 100 years.
Data source description: The data are generated by arranging the literature. Test method: zircon U-Pb isotope LA-(MC)-ICPMS test; Re-Os isotope dilution method TIMS test. Data processing method: The data are automatically acquired by the analytical instrument, and the dating data are calculated using ISOPLOT software. The accuracy of the raw data: The accuracy of the zircon age test is shown in the error analysis value in the table; the accuracy of the Re-Os isotope analysis is shown in the error analysis value in the table. Data generating process: The first author personally analyzes and obtains the data, strictly in accordance with the experimental specifications Applications: Geology Data accuracy after processing: The accuracy of the processed data table is basically consistent with the analysis accuracy. The data contains 2 tables: (1) Zircon U-Pb isotope age analysis results table and (2) Whole rock and spinel Re-Os isotope 7 U-Pb zircon age data and 5 Re-Os isotope data. Data Types: Table 1: Zircon U-Pb age Data type: digital Table 2: Whole rock and spinel Re-Os isotopes Data type: digital Dimensions (unit of measure): "Zircon U-Pb age" dimension: Ma, "Re-Os isotope" dimension: ratio
This data set collected zircon U-Pb isotope age data of the granites in the southern Qiangtang terrane of the Tibetan Plateau from articles published before October 2014. The data were analyzed by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), and Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ID TIMS). The data were obtained according to laboratory standards, and the data quality met laboratory requirements. The data contents are as follows: Region Locality Lithology Sample No. Dating method Age (Ma) References
Data source description: The data are generated by arranging the literature, and the references are as follows:  Huang, QS, Shi, RD, O'Reilly, SY, Griffin, WL, Zhang, M., Liu, DL, Zhang, XR, 2015. Re-Os isotopic constraints on the evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic mantle, Central Tibet. Lithos, 224–225: 32-45. Test methods: major elements XRF test; trace elements ICP-MS test; mineral EPMA test; whole rock Re-Os isotope dilution method TIMS test; in situ sulfide LA-MC-PMS test. Data processing method: The data are automatically acquired by the analytical instrument, and the dating data are calculated using ISOPLOT software. The accuracy of the raw data: The accuracy of the major element analysis is 1-5%; the accuracy of the trace element analysis is 10%; and the accuracy of the Re-Os isotope analysis is shown in the error analysis value in the table. Data generation process: The first author has personally analyzed and obtained the data strictly in accordance with the experimental specifications. Applications: Geology Data accuracy after processing: The accuracy of the processed data table is basically consistent with the analysis accuracy. The data contain 7 tables. (1) Composition of major elements of peridotite whole rock (2) Re-Os isotope of peridotite whole rock (3) Sulfide Re-Os isotope (4) Trace elements in peridotite whole rock (5) Peridotite composition (6) Spinel composition (7) Sulfide composition 25 sets of composition data of major elements of peridotite whole rock; 42 Re-Os whole rock; 13 Re-Os sulfides; 25 trace whole rocks; 40 peridotite composition; 52 spinel composition; 16 sulfide composition. Data types: Table 1: Whole rock major elements Data type: digital Table 2: Whole Rock Re-Os Isotope Data type: digital Table 3: Sulfide Re-Os isotope Data type: digital Table 4: Whole rock trace elements Data type: digital Table 5: Peridotite composition Data type: digital Table 6: Spinel composition Data type: digital Table 7: Sulfide composition Data type: digital Dimensions (unit of measure): "whole rock major elements composition" dimension: percentage%; "Re-Os isotope" dimension: ratio; "trace element" dimension: ppm; "mineral composition" dimension: percentage%
This data set is the result of systematic zircon Hf isotope testing performed on granites in the Bangong Lake, Gaize, Dongqiao and Anduo areas of south Qiangtang using the multireceiving Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrum (LA-MC-ICP-MS) method. The data were obtained according to laboratory standards, and the quality met laboratory requirements. The data are mainly used in geological research of the Tibetan Plateau.