The Third pole

Brief Introduction:The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the 'three poles' on the earth, has been an important area for the study of global environmental change and has played a profound role in regulating the ecology, environment and climate of the entire planet. It has always been a hot spot of concern to the international community. Under the background of global warming, the elements of the cryosphere such as the three-pole glaciers, frozen soils, and frozen-melt lakes have undergone significant changes. The glaciers are rapidly retreating and the layers of frozen soils are thickened. For a long time, China has carried out systematic and multidisciplinary research on the third pole of the world, which is dominated by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and has formed a rich research accumulation. Compared with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China's current level of scientific research in the Arctic and Arctic regions is relatively low, especially the problems of weak research foundation, scattered research direction, and no system and low level. With the impact of climate warming...

Publish Datetime:2020-06-23

Number of Datasets:164

  • Absorptive impurity data of snow and ice in Altay (2016-2017) v1.0

    Soluble organic carbon (DOC) in snow and ice can effectively absorb the solar radiation in the ultraviolet and near ultraviolet band, which is also one of the important factors leading to the enhancement of snow and ice ablation. Through the continuous snow samples from November 2016 to April 2017 in Altay area, the data of DOC, TN and BC of snow in kuwei station in Altay area were obtained through the experimental analysis and test with the instrument. The time resolution was weeks and the ablation period was daily. 1. Unit: Doc and TN unit μ g-1 (PPM), BC unit ng g-1 (ppb), MAC unit M2 g-1

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • The dataset of spatio-temporal water resources distribution in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River (1998-2017)

    This data is a simulated output data set of 5km monthly hydrological data obtained by establishing the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model of the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River, using temperature, precipitation and pressure as input data, and GAME-TIBET data as verification data. The dataset includes grid runoff and evaporation (if the evaporation is less than 0, it means deposition; if the runoff is less than 0, it means that the precipitation in the month is less than evaporation). This data is a model based on the WEB-DHM distributed hydrological model, and established by using temperature, and precipitation (from itp-forcing and CMA) as input data, GLASS, MODIA, AVHRR as vegetation data, and SOILGRID and FAO as soil parameters. And by the calibration and verification of runoff,soil temperature and soil humidity, the 5 km monthly grid runoff and evaporation in the source regions of Yangtze River and Yellow River from 1998 to 2017 was obtained. If asc can't open normally in arcmap, please delete the blacks space of the top 5 lines of the asc file.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • Surface water products based on Keyhole satellite about 1960s in The Three River Headwater region, Pul and Yukon River Basins

    Based on the data of Keyhole satellite in 1960s, using object-oriented supervised classification and manual visual interpretation and correction, water data products are produced. The total interpretation area is 645,000 km2, accounting for 96.28% of the study area, of which 18,844 km2 is missing in The Three River Headwater region, 4,220 km2 is missing in the Yukon River basin study area in Alaska, and 1,954 km2 is missing in the Pul River basin in West Siberia. The width of the minimum linear figure is more than 8 meters, the area of the minimum surface figure is more than 100 square meters, the trace accuracy is 2 pixels, and the first-class interpretation accuracy is more than 95%. The obtained high spatial resolution surface water data products provide effective data for the study of water changes in the 1960s and reliable basis for the study of frozen soil changes.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • GlOWABO surface water products in 2000 in The Three River Headwater region, Pul and Yukon River Basins

    GLObal WAter BOdies database(GLOWABO)were obtained based on the GeoCoverTM Water bodies Extraction Method, Charles verpoorer et al, by Landsat 7 ETM + image in 2000 ± 3 years. The water extraction method combines the principal component analysis, threshold extraction, texture feature extraction and other methods, with a spatial resolution of 15 m and an overall accuracy of 91%. The data also includes water area, perimeter, shape index, elevation and other information. In this data set, The Three River Headwater region, Pul River Basin and Yukon River Basin, are selected to provide data support for polar hydrological research in the northern hemisphere.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • 2017 water products based on sentinel-2 in Sanjiangyuan, Puhe and Yukon River Basins

    The data of this study is mainly based on Google Earth Engine big data cloud processing platform. Sentinel-2 of The Three River Headwater region, Pul and Yukon River Basins in 2017 is selected as the basic data, STRM-DEM and Global Surface Water are used as auxiliary data. AWEIn,AWEIs,WI2015,MNDWI,NDWI and other index threshold extraction are selected to obtain seasonal water body and permanent water body according to annual water frequency(spatial resolution 10m). This water data product provides effective basic data for high spatial-temporal resolution water body change and permafrost hydrological analysis.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • Statistical yearbook of Qinghai Province and the Tibetan Autonomous Region (Version 1.0)(2007-2016)

    The main body of the Tibetan Plateau is Qinghai Province and the Tibetan Autonomous Region. The economic and social data of Qinghai Province and the Tibetan Autonomous Region are the basis for the analysis and assessment of the basic data of sustainable development of populations, resources, environment and economic society on the Tibetan Plateau by integrating the basic data of natural sciences. Under normal circumstances, the statistical yearbooks of all provinces and regions are all in paper and CD-ROM versions, and users need to perform secondary editing before they can use them. This data set mainly relies on the raw data of the Statistical Yearbook of Qinghai Province and the Tibetan Autonomous Region to carry out data conversion and integrate the current economic and social data sets. The temporal coverage of the data is from 2007 to 2016, and the temporal resolution is one year. The spatial coverage is Qinghai Province and the Tibetan Autonomous Region of the Tibetan Plateau. The spatial resolution is the administrative unit of the prefecture or city. The data include information on population, economy, finance, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, investment in fixed assets, education and health.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • The global AVHRR remote sensing vegetation phenology at peturning green stage in spring (1981-2003)

    This dataset is based on the long sequence (1981-2013)normalized difference vegetation index product(Version 3) of the latest NOAA Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS). First, the NDVI data products were re-sampled from the spatial resolution of 1/12 degree to 0.5 degree, then the time series of every year was smoothed by the double-logistic method, and the smoothed curvature was calculated. The maximum curvature of spring was selected as the returning green stage of the vegetation in Spring. This data can be used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of the Holarctic vegetation phenology in Spring.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • Global GIMMS NDVI3g v1 dataset (1981-2015)

    The NDVI data set is the latest release of the long sequence (1981-2015) normalized difference vegetation index product of NOAA Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS), version number 3g.v1. The temporal resolution of the product is twice a month, while the spatial resolution is 1/12 of a degree. The temporal coverage is from July 1981 to December 2015. This product is a shared data product and can be downloaded directly from ecocast.arc.nasa.gov. For details, please refer to https://nex.nasa.gov/nex/projects/1349/.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • MODIS 0.05 NDVI of global (2011-2016)

    The NDVI data set is the sixth version of the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index product (2001-2016) jointly released by NASA EOSDIS LP DAAC and the US Geological Survey (USGS EROS). The product has a temporal resolution of 16 days and a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees. This version is a Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) data product generated from the original NDVI product (MYD13A2) with a resolution of 1 kilometer. Please indicate the source of these data as follows in acknowledgments: The MOD13C NDVI product was retrieved online courtesy of the NASA EOSDIS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, The [PRODUCT] was (were) retrieved from the online [TOOL], courtesy of the NASA EOSDIS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    2020-09-30 0 View Details

  • The Russian frozen soil dataset (1:250,000) (1991-1998)

    The source of the data is a 1:2500000-scale map series, "Geocryological Map of Russia and Neighboring Republics", published by Russia from 1991 to 1996, which is labelled in Russian and includes a total of 16 images. In 1998, Zaitsev and others translated it into English. In this study, seven of the images were digitized: 1) Distribution of frozen and unfrozen ground, 2) Mean annual temperature of unfrozen ground at the depth of zero annual amplitude (note that there is some uncertainty because the depth of zero amplitude is not provided, and data on this parameter is generally lacking), 3) Thickness of permafrost, 4) Depth from the surface and thickness of relict permafrost, 5) Distribution of permafrost containing cryopegs, 6) Thickness of permafrost containing cryopegs, 7) Distribution of permafrost with depth. 1. The data include multiple vector layers: (1) permafrost distribution, (2) permafrost temperature, (3) permafrost thickness, (4) permafrost formation conditions, and (5) the correction image. 2. The permafrost distribution map includes the following fields: AREA, PERIMETER, FROZEN_, FROZEN_ID: POLY_, POLY_, RINGS_OK, RINGS_NOK, A, FROZEN_SOI (frozen soil layer), and temperature. FROZEN_SOI are the Chinese and English representations of the type of frozen soil, respectively. 4. Frozen soil properties: Frozen soil Continuous predominantly unfrozen 1-5 Continuous permafrost -3- -5 Continuous unfrozen ground 4-6 Discontinuous permafrost 0.5- -2 Predominantly continuous permafrost -1- -3 Predominantly unfrozen ground 1-3 5. Projection information: PROJCS["Asia_North_Equidistant_Conic", GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1927", DATUM["North_American_Datum_1927", SPHEROID["Clarke_1866",6378206.4,294.9786982]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0.0], UNIT["Degree",0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION["Equidistant_Conic"], PARAMETER["False_Easting",0.0], PARAMETER["False_Northing",0.0], PARAMETER["longitude_of_center",100.0], PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_1",15.0], PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_2",58.3], PARAMETER["latitude_of_center",60.0], UNIT["Meter",1.0]]

    2020-09-15 0 View Details

  • Glacier data product in Tibetan Plateau (1976)

    The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product-TPG1976 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 1976. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat MSS multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data were from 1972 to 1979. 61% of the remote sensing data were from 1976 to 1977. The data covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of approximately 60 m. Considering the large error of automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of cloud, shadow and seasonal snow on glacier area, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images is still the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, and the elevation attribute data of each glacier was obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and finally the 1976 glacial data product of the Tibetan Plateau was obtained.

    2020-09-15 0 View Details

  • The Tibetan Plateau glacial data product (2000)

    The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product - TPG2000 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 2000. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat5 TM/Landsat7 ETM+ multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data was from 1999 to 2002. 41% of the remote sensing data were obtained in 2001. They covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Considering the large error of the automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of clouds, shadows and seasonal snow on glacier areas, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images remains the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, and the elevation attribute data of each glacier was obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and finally the Tibetan Plateau glacial data product - TPG2000 was obtained.

    2020-09-15 0 View Details

  • The Tibetan Plateau glacial data product (2013)

    The Tibetan Plateau Glacial Data Product-TPG2013 is a glacial attribute product of the Tibetan Plateau around 2013. It was generated by remote sensing visual interpretation method adopting Landsat8 OLI and HJ 1A/1B multispectral data. The temporal coverage of the data were from 2012 to 2014. 86% of the remote sensing data were obtained in 2013. They covered the Tibetan Plateau with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Considering the large error of the automatic remote sensing extraction method caused by the impact of clouds, shadows and seasonal snow on glacier areas, the remote sensing inversion method adopted manual visual interpretation. By comparing the results of automatic methods and visual interpretation of glacier boundaries based on experts’ experiences, we know that the manual interpretation based on remote sensing images remains the most accurate method to obtain the glacier vector boundary at present. When selecting remote sensing images, the minimum effects of cloud and seasonal snow were mainly considered. Images of summer and cold season were both selected (different from the principle applied in selecting remote sensing image data source for China's second glacier inventory). At the same time, considering the differences in discriminant standards between different interpreters, the comparison of multiple typical regions showed that the relative deviation of manual visual interpretation was less than 4%. Based on the Arc map software platform, the abovementioned remote sensing images were geometrically corrected, and the final glacier vector boundary data were obtained by visual interpretation. According to the format and requirements of the second glacier inventory in China, the glacier code and area statistics were collected, the elevation attribute data of each glacier were obtained based on the SRTM DEM data, and, finally, the Tibetan Plateau glacial data product-TPG2013 was obtained.

    2020-09-15 0 View Details

  • NCEP reanalysis datasets (1948-2018)

    1) The data set is composed of global atmospheric reanalysis data jointly produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). These grid data are generated by reanalysing the global meteorological data from 1948 to present by applying observation data, forecasting models and assimilation systems. The data variables include surface, near-surface (.995 sigma layer) and multiple meteorological variables in different barospheres, such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, sea level pressure, geopotential height, wind field, heat flux, etc. 2) The coverage time is from 1948 to 2018, and the data from 1948 to 1957 are non-Gaussian grid data. The data cover the whole world. The spatial resolution is a 2.5° latitude by 2.5° longitude grid. The vertical resolution is a 17-layer standard pressure barosphere, with layer boundaries at 1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30, 20, and 10 hPa, and 28 sigma levels. Some variables are calculated for 8 layers (omega) or 12 layers (humidity), with temporal resolutions of 6 hours, daily, monthly or a long-term monthly average (from 1981 to 2010). The daily data are obtained by averaging the daily values of 0Z, 6Z, 12Z and 18Z. 3) Missing values are assigned a value of -9.99691e+36f. The data are stored in the .nc format with the file name var.time.stat.nc, and each file includes data on latitude, longitude, time, and atmospheric variables. For detailed data specifications, please visit http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/pad/data.

    2020-09-14 0 View Details

  • China meteorological forcing dataset (1979-2018)

    The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.

    2020-09-03 0 View Details

  • Data set of spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in Yarlung Zangbo River from 1998 to 2016

    This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation). This data is a 5km monthly hydrological data set, including grid runoff and evaporation (if evaporation is less than 0, it means condensation; if runoff is less than 0, it means precipitation is less than evaporation).

    2020-08-27 0 View Details

  • The atmospheric heat source dataset of Tibetan Plateau based on satellites and stations (1984-2015)

    As the third pole of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has a significant impact on regional and global weather and climate as a heat source in spring and summer. In order to explore the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of multi-scale thermal forcing in different time on the plateau, it is necessary to establish a set of plateau heat source (collection) data based on observation data of continuous and reliable long-term observation. Based on the meteorological elements (surface temperature, surface air temperature, wind speed at the height of 10m, daily cumulative precipitation, etc.) of the 80 (32) observation stations on the Tibetan Plateau from 1979 to 2016 (1960-2016) of China Meteorological Bureau, the sensible heat(SH) and latent heat(LH) was calculated. Meanwhile, using satellite data processing to obtain the net radiation flux (RC) from 1984 to 2015 on the plateau, and then a set of quality controlled long-term plateau heat source data was obtained. This data set considers the diurnal variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient when calculating the surface sensible heat flux.

    2020-08-18 0 View Details

  • Aerosol optical property dataset of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observation (2009-2016)

    The measurement data of the sun spectrophotometer can be directly used to perform inversion on the optical thickness of the non-water vapor channel, Rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical thickness, and moisture content of the atmospheric air column (using the measurement data at 936 nm of the water vapor channel). The aerosol optical property data set of the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observations was obtained by adopting the Cimel 318 sun photometer, and both the Mt. Qomolangma and Namco stations were involved. The temporal coverage of the data is from 2009 to 2016, and the temporal resolution is one day. The sun photometer has eight observation channels from visible light to near infrared. The center wavelengths are 340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1120 nm. The field angle of the instrument is 1.2°, and the sun tracking accuracy is 0.1°. According to the direct solar radiation, the aerosol optical thickness of 6 bands can be obtained, and the estimated accuracy is 0.01 to 0.02. Finally, the AERONET unified inversion algorithm was used to obtain aerosol optical thickness, Angstrom index, particle size spectrum, single scattering albedo, phase function, birefringence index, asymmetry factor, etc.

    2020-08-17 0 View Details

  • Economy statistics of Qing-Tibet Plateau (1951-2016)

    This data contains part of the economic indicators of Qinghai province and Tibet Autonomous Region. The data statistics based on provinces can be used to construct the evaluation index system for the coupling coordination relationship between urbanization and eco-environment on the Tibetan Plateau. The data of the Tibet Autonomous Region contains seven indicators, including the gross domestic product (GDP), the primary, secondary and tertiary industries, industry, construction industry, and the per capita GDP, the time span is 1951-2016. The time span of the data set of Qinghai province is from 1952 to 2015, besides the above seven indicators, there is one more indicator of Qinghai province called agriculture forwdtry animal husbandry and fishery. All data are derived from the statistical yearbook, which is calculated at current prices. The gross domestic product (GDP) for 2005-2008 has been revised based on data from the second economic census.

    2020-08-15 0 View Details

  • Oxygen isotope data in Mt. Logan, Canada (1736-1987)

    Climate records obtained by most instruments are relatively short in time, which limits the study of climate change, necessitating the use of proxy data to extend records to the past. It was not until the late 1940s that atmospheric data of sufficient quality and spatial resolution were available to determine the main patterns of climate change such as the North American Pacific model and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The global ice cores are from the north and south poles and the third pole, and there are also mountain glaciers in Alaska. The ice core data obtained in that area are of great significance for revealing the climate in North America and climate change in the Arctic regions at both low and high latitudes. The physical meaning of each variable: First column: time; second column: accumulation rate data; third column: oxygen isotope data value

    2020-08-13 0 View Details