The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition (STEP) program

Brief Introduction: Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition Program

Number of Datasets: 111

  • Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with brachiopod biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    Permian stratigraphic column of the Mujiucuo section in Xainza County, Tibet (with brachiopod biostratigraphic subdivisions)

    The Mujiucuo section locates at the west of the Mujiucuo salt lake in Xainza County, Tibet. The Permian sequences oupcropped very well at the section. The Permian sequence at the section was divided into five formations, respectively Yunzhub, Largar, Angjie, Xiala and Mujiucuo formations. The Yunzhub Formation is composed of sandstone. The upper part of this formation contains limestone interlayers with 8 species of brachiopods. The brachiopods are grouped into the Costatumulus-Bandoproductus assemblage. The Xiala Formation is composed of entirely carbonates. The purplish limestone in the base of Xiala Formation consists of 6 species of brachiopods. They are grouped into the Alispiriferella-Retimarginifera celeteria assemblage. The overlying bed only contains one species Permophricodothyris elegantula. The brachiopods from these beds overall show a Gondwanan type in palaeobiogeography. It suggests that the Lhasa Block located not far away from the Gondwana margin. According to the constraints by fusulines and conodonts, the ages of beds 83, 86 and 87 are Middle Permian whereas those of beds 88 and 89 are late Permian. Brachiopods are found in many beds in the Xiala Formation. They are divided into two separate assemblages, respectively Echinauris opuntia-Neoplicatifera in the lower and Spinomarginifera lopingensis-Chonetinella cymatilis in the upper. Compared with the brachiopods from the Yunzhub Formation and basal Xiala Formation below, both assemblages from the middle and upper part of the Xiala Formation exhibit a pronounced palaeobiogeographical changes.

    2020-12-22 276 1

  • The Daily  kernel-driven BRDF model  coefficients retrieved from  5-days-composited multi-sensory data coupling topograpic effects over the Tibet Plateau (2016)

    The Daily kernel-driven BRDF model coefficients retrieved from 5-days-composited multi-sensory data coupling topograpic effects over the Tibet Plateau (2016)

    This daily land surface kernel-driven BRDF model's coeciffients proudct is with a spatl resolution of 0.02 ° x 0.02 ° over the Tibet Plateau in 2016. Multi-sensory data is used to retrieve the the kernel-driven BRDF model and coupled with topographic effects, and prior knowledge is introduced for quality control inversion. The high-precision BRDF of good spatial-temporal continiuty is retrieved by combining MODIS reflectance data (a polar orbiting satellite) and himawari-8 AHI land surface reflectance (a geostationary satellite ). MODIS lans surface reflectance data and AHI TOA reflectance data are downloaded from the official websites. After registration, atmospheric correction and other processing, the daily resolution BRDF is synthesized with a period of 5 days. Compared with similar products, it has more advantages in capturing rapidly changing surface features, and has better temporal and spatial continuity with the shortest composition period. It can effectively support angular effects correction and the BRDF-releated parameters' retrieval.

    2021-03-04 469 5

  • Water quality dataset of Qixiangcuo Lake (2017)

    Water quality dataset of Qixiangcuo Lake (2017)

    This is the water quality data of the vertical profile of the observation point in Qixiangcuo Lake. There are two observation points. It is observed on July 4, 2017. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2019-11-17 1499 29

  • Composition and implication of trace elements from the Permian basic rocks in central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone

    Composition and implication of trace elements from the Permian basic rocks in central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone

    Previous works have been undertaking on the geochemistry of some basic rocks within the Yaelung Zangbo suture zone, and it was proposed that the Jurassic-Cretaceous seamount type basement basic rocks are preserved in Zhongba and Renbu area. In this work, we conducted analysis of trace element for seventeen basic rock samples underlain below limestone blocks in Lhaze area within the central Yarlung Zangbo suture zone, southern Tibet. Results show that the rocks are dominated by basalts and have a feature of EMORB type with NMORB and OIB types. Combined with the overlain carbonates, these rocks are proposed the basement of paleo-seamounts, the Permian vestige preserved within the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. This recognition of paleo-seamount implies that the Neotethys Ocean could have been already opened at the time (before the Middle Permian epoch).

    2021-01-05 355 1

  • Flux observation data of alizangbu, the inflow river of Selincuo (2017)

    Flux observation data of alizangbu, the inflow river of Selincuo (2017)

    The data set is the flux data of the Alizangbu lake inlet obtained using the HS-2 portable hydrological velocity and flow meter, which can be applied to the hydrological processes and other fields in the cold areas. The data were obtained on August 16, 2017, and the data include measurement time, location, water depth, velocity and flow rate. The data are stored as an excel file.

    2019-11-18 2600 5

  • Water quality multi-parameter dataset of Renqingxiubucuo Lake (2017)

    Water quality multi-parameter dataset of Renqingxiubucuo Lake (2017)

    This is the water quality multi-parameter data set of Renqingxiubucuo Lake. It can be used to acquire basic physical and chemical indices of lakes. And it can prepare for the following modern observation studies of lakes. The data is observed on September 1 2017. It was measured by the YSI EXO2 multi-parameter water quality instrument. Instrument calibration is made before each measurement based on the altitude of the lake and the local pressure. The measuring interval is 0.25 s. To ensure the data is continuously acquired, the instrument is slowly released. The original data includes data measured above the water surface, which is exposed to the air, and it has all been eliminated in the post processing. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2019-11-18 2046 19

  • Water quality dataset of Pusaiercuo Lake (2017)

    Water quality dataset of Pusaiercuo Lake (2017)

    This is the water quality data of the vertical profile of the observation point in Pusaiercuo Lake. The data is observed on July 2, 2017. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2020-06-03 1381 23

  • 8 km resolution evapotranspiration dataset of the Tibetan Plateau (1990-2015)

    8 km resolution evapotranspiration dataset of the Tibetan Plateau (1990-2015)

    Evapotranspiration over the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is calculated by etwatch, a land surface evapotranspiration remote sensing model based on multi-scale and multi-source data. Etwatch adopts the method of combining the residual term method with P-M formula to calculate evapotranspiration. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the data image, the suitable model is selected to retrieve the evapotranspiration on a sunny day; the remote sensing model is often lack of data because the weather conditions can not obtain a clear image. In order to obtain the daily continuous evapotranspiration, the penman Monteith formula is introduced, and the evapotranspiration results on a sunny day are regarded as the "key frame", and the surface impedance information of the key frame is used as the basis to construct the surface impedance Based on the daily meteorological data, the time series data of evapotranspiration are reconstructed. Through the data fusion model, the high spatial and temporal resolution evapotranspiration data set is constructed by combining the low and medium resolution evapotranspiration temporal variation information with the high resolution evapotranspiration spatial difference information, so as to generate the 8 km resolution evapotranspiration of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau Data sets (1990-2015).

    2021-01-05 541 55

  • Precipitation observation data of Jaggang Snow Mountain (2016-2017)

    Precipitation observation data of Jaggang Snow Mountain (2016-2017)

    This is the precipitation observation data of the observation point in Jaggang Snow Mountain. It can be used in Glaciology, Climatology, Environmental Change, Hydrologic Process in Cold Regions and other disciplinary areas. The data is observed from September 14, 2016 to June 19, 2017. It is measured by automatic rain gauge and a piece of data is recorded every 60 minutes. The original data forms a continuous time series after quality control, and the daily mean index data is obtained through calculation. The original data meets the accuracy requirements of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for meteorological observation. Quality control includes eliminating the systematic error caused by the missing point data and sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2020-06-03 1143 13

  • 30 m grid data of farmland distribution in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015

    30 m grid data of farmland distribution in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015

    The data of farmland distribution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were extracted on the basis of the land use dataset in China (2015). The dataset is mainly based on landsat 8 remote sensing images, which are generated by manual visual interpretation. The land use types mainly include the cultivated land, which is divided into two categories, including paddy land (1) and dry land (2). The spatial resolution of the data is 30m, and the time is 2015. The projection coordinate system is D_Krasovsky_1940_Albers. And the central meridian was 105°E and the two standard latitudes of the projection system were 25°N and 47°N, respectively. The data are stored in TIFF format, named “farmland distribution”, and the data volume is 4.39GB. The data were saved in compressed file format, named “30 m grid data of farmland distribution in agricultural and pastoral areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 2015”. The data can be opened by ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, and ERDAS software, which can provide reference for farmland ecosystem management on the QTP.

    2021-01-12 897 1

  • Black carbon mass concentration data set in Ali area

    Black carbon mass concentration data set in Ali area

    The data set is the observation of Shiquanhe town in Ali area. The altitude, longitude and latitude of Ali area are 32.50, 80.10 and 4360m respectively. The mass concentration of black carbon in the atmosphere was continuously observed. Ae31 (aethalometer) is used as the measuring instrument. Its observation period is from 12:00:00 on July 13, 2019 to 21:35:00, July 17, 2020. The time resolution is 5 minutes. There is data missing due to instrument failure. The data file includes instrument information, flow parameter setting (LPM) and specific observed concentration. Funded project: Research Fund for the second comprehensive investigation of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, 2019qzkk0602.

    2020-11-08 504 4

  • The data set is based on the reflectance of MODIS channels and the observation data of SIF to establish the neural network model, so as to obtain the SIF data with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is often used as a reference for primary productivity. The data is from Zhang et al. (2018), and the specific algorithm is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and the Tibetan plateau region is selected in this data set. This data integrates the original 4-day time scale data into the monthly data. The processing method is to take the maximum value of the month, so as to achieve the effect of removing noise as much as possible. This data set is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and primary productivity, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-18 303 7

  • Stratigraphic columns of Early Cretaceous East Xiagou and Changma outcrops in Jiuquan district, Gansu Province.

    Stratigraphic columns of Early Cretaceous East Xiagou and Changma outcrops in Jiuquan district, Gansu Province.

    With a depositional history spanning the early Aptian to early Albian (~19 mys), the Lower Cretaceous Xinminpu Group in Jiuquan, NW China provides abundant animal and plant fossils. This area is the represented study area of the Lower Cretaceous in China. The absence of a comprehensive stratigraphical framework for this area however limits the degree to which the unit can be interpreted relative to coeval sections and the geological records in genera. This investigation from July 9 to July 11 focuses on the Lower Cretaceous in this area, and collected abundant fossil and rock samples for biostratigraphic and stratigraphic analysis. This dataset includes: stratigraphic column of the Chijinpu Formation in the East Xiagou outcrop, and photographs of outcrops and represented fossils; stratigraphic column of the Xiagou Formation in the Changma outcrop and a photo of bird-bearing outcrop.

    2021-01-08 371 1

  • Hydrogen and Oxygen isotope data of water collected in river and lake source (2017)

    Hydrogen and Oxygen isotope data of water collected in river and lake source (2017)

    This data set is the the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio data of water samples collected in the Ngangla Ringco, Renqingxiubucuo, Mapam Yumco, and Laangcuo during the River and Lake Source Investigation in 2017. It is used to acquire basic physical and chemical indices of lakes. And it can prepare for the following modern observation studies of lakes environment research. The water sample collection time is from August 2017 to September 2017. The sampling sites are Ngangla Ringco, Renqingxiubucuo, Mapam Yumco, and Laangcuo. The data is measured by the Environmental Laboratory of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research. The instrument used is the wavelength scanning cavity ring-down spectrometer made by the American Company Picarro. Each sample is measured twice and two data is obtained when measured. The average of the two data for the same indicator for each sample is used when analyzing. Test accuracy: (standard deviation, SD): δO18 ≤ 0.15 ‰, δD ≤ 1.0 ‰.

    2019-11-18 1447 15

  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset of Tibetan Plateau (1982-2015)

    The data set is based on NDVI 3G calculated by GIMMS AVHRR sensor data, which represents the greenness of vegetation. The data is from Zhu et al. (2013), and the specific calculation method is shown in the article. The source data range is global, and the Qinghai Tibet plateau region is selected in this data set. This data integrates the original semi monthly scale data into the monthly data. The processing method is to take the maximum value of two NDVI of a month to achieve the effect of noise removal as far as possible. This data set is one of the most widely used NDVI data, and is often used to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness, which has practical significance and theoretical value.

    2020-12-22 694 81

  • PM2.5 mass concentration data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    PM2.5 mass concentration data set of Shiquanhe station in Ali area (2019)

    The data set contains the mass concentration of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μ m) in the atmosphere of Shiquanhe national reference climate station (32 ° 30'n, 80 ° 05'e, altitude 4278.6 m). The measuring instrument is RP 1400A vibrating balance micro balance (TEOM). The observation period is from July 8, 2019 to August 2, 2019, and the time resolution is 1 minute. The data is stored in TXT format.

    2020-09-23 1851 14

  • Flow discharge observation data of Selincuo Lake's Inflow River Zhagenzangbu (2017)

    Flow discharge observation data of Selincuo Lake's Inflow River Zhagenzangbu (2017)

    This is the flow discharge observation data observed in the estuary of Zhagenzangbu, which is Selincuo Lake’s inflow river. It is measured by HS-2 portable hydrological flow rate meter. It can be used in Hydrologic Process in Cold Regions and other disciplinary areas. The data is observed on August 16, 2017. The data includes time, location, depth of water, water flow rate, and water flow discharge. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2019-11-18 1262 17

  • Water quality slope data of Selincuo Lake (2017)

    Water quality slope data of Selincuo Lake (2017)

    This is the water quality vertical slope data of Selincuo Lake during the River and Lake Source Investigation from June to July in 2017. The main water quality parameter observation data includes dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, PH, water temperature and others.

    2019-11-18 1204 15

  • Meteorological observation data of Selincuo Lake camp (2017)

    Meteorological observation data of Selincuo Lake camp (2017)

    This is the meteorological observation data of Selincuo Lake Camp. It includes the radiosonde data, turbulent flux, radiation observation data, general meteorologrical elements near the surface layer and others. The radiosonde data is observed separately at 14:00 and 18:00 July 2, at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 July 3, at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 23:00 July 4, at 6:00 July 5, 2017. The observation time of turbulent flux and radiation observation data is from 17:30 June 29 to 10:00 July 6, 2017. The observation time of general meteorologrical elements near the surface layer is from 18:30 June 29 to 10:10 July 6, 2017. The wind lidar observation time is from 2:24 June 30 to 3:49 July 6, 2017. The data is stored as an excel file.

    2019-11-18 2673 25

  • The daily albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau

    The daily albedo product coupling topographic effects and combining multi-sensory data over the Tibet Plateau

    This daily land surface albedo proudct is with a spatl resolution of 0.02 ° x 0.02 ° over the Tibet Plateau in 2016. Multi-sensory data is used to retrieve the Multisensor Combined BRDF Inversion Model developed from a kernel-driven BRDF model and coupled with topographic effects, and prior knowledge is introduced for quality control inversion. The high-precision BRDF / albedo of good spatial-temporal continiuty is retrieved by combining MODIS reflectance data (a polar orbiting satellite) and himiwarri-8 AHI land surface reflectance (a geostationary satellite ). MODIS lans surface reflectance data and AHI TOA reflectance data are downloaded from the official websites. After registration, atmospheric correction and other processing, the daily resolution BRDF is synthesized with a period of 5 days, and then the daily resolution albedo is estimated. The validation results show that it meets the accuracy requirements of albedo application. Compared with similar products, it has more advantages in capturing rapidly changing surface features, and has better temporal and spatial continuity. It can effectively support the study of radiation energy balance and environmental change in the Tibet Plateau.

    2021-03-02 431 4