The hydrometeorological observation network covers the upstream, midstream and downstream of the Heihe River Basin, which involves Qilian county in the Qinghai province, Zhangye city in Gansu province, and Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia. A total of 3 superstations and 15 ordinary stations were established in the network. In the upstream region, there was one superstation (A’rou superstation) and 7 ordinary stations, namely Dashalong station, Huangzangsi station, A’rou sunny slope station, A’rou shady slope station, Huangcaogou station, E’bao station, and Jingyangling station from west to east. In the midstream region, there was one superstation (Daman superstation in the oasis) and 4 ordinary stations, namely Bajitan Gobi station, Shenshawo sandy desert station, Zhangye wetland station, and Huazhaizi desert steppe station around the oasis. In the downstream region, there was one superstation (Sidaoqiao Superstation) and 4 ordinary stations, namely the mixed forest station, populus forest station, barren-land station, and cropland station, which were located in the oasis. The instrument configuration of a superstation includes a meteorological element gradient observation system, an eddy covariance system, a large aperture scintillometer system, a cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system, and soil temperature and moisture wireless network in the LAS source area, etc., while in an ordinary station, the instruments are configured of an automatic weather station and an eddy covariance system.